Open Access Short communication

Analysis of Isotopic Peaks in Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectra for Precise Measurement of Isotope Average Centroid Mass of Peptides and Proteins Using R Programming Language

Arumugaperumal Arun, Sreekala Narayanan, Subhasis Sarangi, Amit Kumar Mandal

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35595

In hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectra, the shift in isotopically distributed peaks with deuterium incorporation into peptides results in an increase in the isotope average centroid mass. Due to limitations in the resolution of instruments and data processing by softwares, the observed peaks might have obscurity in its maxima values that can affect the centroid mass calculation. In the present study, using Gaussian function, the exact maxima of individual isotopic peaks of a distribution was calculated. Using those maxima and our customized program, the centroid mass was calculated. We propose that our method of calculating average centroid mass is mathematically more appropriate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perspectives of Phosphate Solubilizing Microbes for Plant Growth Promotion, Especially Rice - A Review

Nilima Dash, Tushar Kanti Dangar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/34136

Phosphorus (P) is the second (to nitrogen) important macronutrient, a constituent of the                        essential macromolecules like DNA, RNA, ATP, phospholipids etc., major repository of                          chemical energy and indispensable at all growth stages of plants including rice. The rice crop requires around 6.4 kg P2O5 (2.8 kg P) per ton of grain yield and at neutral pH, P availability is optimum. Phosphate solubilizing microbes viz. Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Azotobacter,                         Aspergillus spp. recycle the nutrients like N, P, C, K, S, Fe etc. and promote plant                                      growth and development. Different endophytes like Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas spp., epiphytes like Rhizobium, Pantoea spp., rhizospheric organisms like Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Erwinia spp. and entomopathogens viz. Beauveria, Metarhizium, Nomuraea spp.                             mineralize insoluble P for P accessibility to plants. Soil enzymes also solubilize organic phosphates to available forms. Oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid, production of organic and inorganic acids, ammonia, H2S, etc. are major mechanisms for acid production and P mineralization by                   microbes. So, phosphate solubilizing microbes would be important biofertilizers as they promote plant growth, improve soil health and protect plants from different pathogens without affecting the environment. This has led to formulation and commercialization of several P-solubilizing microbial biofertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Potentials of Egg Plant (Solanum melongena Linn) Fruit Ethanolic Extract on Monosodium Glutamate- Intoxicated Rats' Lipid Profile, Haematology and Heart Histology

Uchendu O. Mbah, Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35057

Aim: This study evaluated the ameliorative potentials of ethanolic extract of Solanum melongena Linn fruit on monosodium glutamate (MSG)-intoxicated rats' lipid profile, haematological parameters and heart histology using standard protocols.

Methodology: Twenty four Wistar rats that weighed 105.00 ± 7.00 g. The rats were assigned into six groups and fed thus: Group 1 (control, feed and 1 ml/kg body weight (bw) distilled water only), Group 2 (8000­ mg/kg bw MSG), Group 3 (300 mg/kg bw sample extract), Group 4 (8000 mg/kg bw MSG +100 mg/kg bw sample extract ), Group 5 (8000 mg/kg bw MSG+ 300 mg/kg bw sample extract) and Group 6 (8000 mg/kg bw MSG+ 500 mg/kg bw sample extract) daily for 14 days. Results: There were significant (P =.05) increase in total cholesterol, triacylglyceride (TAG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and significantly (P =.05) decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in only MSG fed group compared to the control group. Interestingly, MSG co-administration with ethanolic extract of Solanum melongena Linn fruit for group 4, 5 and 6 showed significant (P=.05) reduction in serum total cholesterol, TAG, VLDL and LDL-c and increased HDL-c. There was no significant (P =.05) difference in the haematological parameters (Red blood cell, hemoglobin and hemacrit) except for white blood cell count which was significantly (P =.05) reduced in the MSG fed group. The histological results revealed that MSG ingestion in rats induced toxic injuries in their hearts at 8000 mg/kg body weight and effects were slowly being ameliorated as the concentration of the ethanolic extract of Solanum melongena Linn fruit increased.

Conclusion: This study confirmed general adverse influence of MSG at a high concentration (8000 mg/kg body weight) and demonstrated the ameliorative role of ethanolic extract of Solanum melongena Linn fruit, notably at 300 mg/kg of body weight, on the studied monosodium glutamate-intoxicated bio-functions in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Physical Properties and Heavy Metals in Borehole Water from Ogale, Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State

Ndowa Owate Oyor, Ndokiari Boisa, Josephine Akaninwor, Tebekeme Okoko

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35408

Aim: To assess the physical properties and some heavy metal levels of borehole water in Ogale, Eleme local government area of Rivers State.

Study Design: Water samples were collected from boreholes of twelve (12) communities in Ogale, Eleme and analyzed for physical parameters and heavy metal concentrations.

Place and Duration of Study: The samples collected from various sites were analyzed in the Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University from November, 2016 to January, 2017.

Methodology: The physical properties were analyzed via standard methods while the heavy metals were assessed using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Results: The pH varied from 4.6 – 6.1 which is below the standard recommended by the Standards Organization of Nigeria. Other physical parameters were below the maximum permitted limit. However, the total suspended solids and turbidity in Nsisioken, Ekirinde and Oken-eta were above the maximum permitted level. The concentration of Pb in all samples was above the maximum permitted limit of 0.01 mg/L. The concentration of Ni was above the permitted limit (0.02 mg/L) in boreholes at Ekpangbala, Ejii, Agbi and Nsisioken while the concentration of Cd is above the maximum permitted limit of 0.003 mg/L in boreholes in all the communities apart from Okori (0.002 ± 0.001 mg/L). The concentrations of other heavy metals (i.e. Zn, Cr and Mn) were below the permitted limit in all samples. The spatial distribution of the commulative heavy metals in the area suggests that Pb, Cd and Ni may have originated from the same source due to their positive correlations.

Conclusion: The low pH and relative high concentrations of Pb, Cd and Ni suggest that water from the boreholes in the area were of low quality for domestic use thus requires treatment and monitoring.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Entandrophragma angolense Bark Extracts on Acute Edema of the Rat's Paw Induced by Carrageenan

Yenon Achiè Aurélie, Koffi Akissi Jeanne, Bedou Kouassi Denis, Yapi Houphouet Félix, Nguessan Jean David, Djaman Allico Joseph

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35071

Aims: Our work consisted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Entandrophragma angolense in the laboratory.

Methods: The experiments were carried out on the model of acute edema of the rat's paw induced by carrageenan and the determination of C-reactive protein. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to the rats. The extracts were administered an hour before induction of acute inflammation with 1% carrageenan. The results obtained were compared to those of Diclofenac Sodium and those of physiological control.

Results: After administration of the distilled water, the carrageenan induced edema which increased gradually with a maximum of 38.41% after five hours of observation. The administration of Diclofenac Sodium at dose of 10 mg/kg b.wt as well as aqueous and ethanolic extracts of E. angolense significantly prevented the increase in the diameter of the rat's paw. From the 1st to the 4th hour, the aqueous extract at dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt respectively shows a percentage of inhibition similar to that of Diclofenac Sodium. Then, the administration of the extracts and Diclofenac Sodium decreased the concentration of CRP induced by the injection of carrageenan compared to the control. 

Conclusion: E. angolense has a mechanism of anti-inflammatory action similar to that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which could be attributed to its phytochemical constituents.