Open Access Short Research Article

Substrate Mass Conservation in Enzyme Catalyzed Amylolytic Activity

Ikechukwu I. Udema

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35040

Aims: The aims of the research were 1), to derive simple equations that can be used to determine mass concentration of reaction mixture components, and 2), to determine the mass concentration of free substrate, total mass concentration of substrate involved in enzyme-substrate complex formation, and mass concentration of partially digested parent starch, otherwise called fragments at the end of different durations of assay.

Study Design: Theoretical and Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Research Division, Ude International Concepts LTD (862217), B. B. Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria; Owa Alizomor Secondary School, Owa Alizomor, Ika North East, Delta State, Nigeria. The research, including derivation of equations lasted between 18th April, 2017 and 24th June, 2017.

Methodology: Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was used. Assays were carried out on Aspergillus oryzea salivary alpha amylase. Various parameters were determined by substituting relevant experimental data to the formulated equations.

Results: The mass concentrations of the free undigested starch, the enzyme-substrate complex, and the fragments showed decreasing trend with time. The exception was at highest duration with respect to the concentration of the fragment. The concentrations of the remaining substrate calculated using two different approaches, and the new approach (Eq. (31)) in this research were not statistically different (P > 0.05). The difference between the change in the concentration of the substrate per unit time, D[S0]/min, and the corresponding product formed per unit time, [P]/min, was not statistically different (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Different algebraic equations were successfully derived and were used to determine various components of the hydrolyzate at the end of the duration of assay. The hydrolyzate is composed of different components. The sum of the components was very similar to total concentration of substrate, in conformity with substrate mass conservation law.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Sphenostylis stenocarpa on Some Liver and Kidney Parameters of Wistar Rat

Okoye Ngozi Franca, Esiobise Ufuoma Monica

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/34274

Aim: Aqueous extract of the seed of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is used in Nigerian alternative medicine for the treatment of hypertension. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Sphenostylis stenocarpa seed extract on the liver and kidney functions of wistar rats. The biochemical parameters assayed were alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea and creatinine.

Materials and Methods: Varying doses of the aqueous extract of the Sphenostylis stenocarpa, were administered to the rats for a period of ten days and the biochemical parameters; ALP, LDH, urea and creatinine levels were determined using spectrophotometric methods.

Results: There was significant decrease p=0.05 in the urea concentration in the serum. The highest decrease of 0.70 ± 0.08 vs control 0.97 ± 0.00 mmol/l was obtained after the 10 days duration at the highest dose (3 ml/100 g body weight). Additionally, the creatinine concentration in the serum of the experimental animals also showed a significant decrease. The highest decrease of 81 ± 1.63 vs control 110 ± 0.00 µmol/l was obtained after the 10 days period at the highest dose (3 ml/100 g body weight). The study also showed that the aqueous extract of Sphenostylis stenocarpa had no significant effect on the ALP and LDH activities of the experimental rats.

Conclusion: The decrease on the urea and creatinine levels may be contributing to the reduction in high blood pressure in the individuals taking this tea extract. Furthermore, the study showed that the aqueous extract had no harmful effects on the liver profile of the rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

HPLC Profile of Bioactive Compounds Present in Olea europeae, Myrtus communis and Monotheca buxifolia and their Antibacterial Activities

Muhammad Zahoor, Naveed Ahmad, Huma ., Farzana .

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/34556

Aims: In this study the aqueous extract of Olea europeae, Myrtus communis and Monotheca buxifolia were screened for antibacterial activity, total phenolic content, polyphenol, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, β-carotene and lycopene.

Design of the Study: The study is composed of identification and quantification of bioactive compounds in selected plants through HPLC.

Place and Duration of the Study: Biochemistry Lab, Department of Chemistry University of Malakand Pakistan. The study duration was from September 2015 to August 2016.

Methodology: The antibacterial activities of the selected plants extracts were determined using agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. The total polyphenol contents were determined by Follin Ciocalteu reagent method. The extract was subjected to HPLC analysis for antioxidants concentration.

Results: The zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus were 1.82, 1.52, 1.72 and 2.46 cm for Olea europeae extract, 1.51, 2.06, 1.98, 1.79 cm for Myrtus communis extract, 1.98, 2.28, 2.36, 1.62 cm for stem extract and 1.78, 2.05, 1.80, 1.77 cm for root extract of Monotheca buxifolia respectively. Morin, Quercetin and Chlorogenic acid were detected at retention times; 12.518, 10.022 and 6.305 minutes respectively in Olea europeae extract. Morein and Hydroxy benzoic acid were detected at 12.858 and 6.079 minutes retention time respectively in Myrtus communis extract. Chlorogenic acid, Quercetin, Morin, Pyrogallol and Phloroglucinol were detected in root extract of Monotheca buxifolia while in its stem, Chlorogenic acid, Quercetin, Morin, Rutin, Mandalic acid, Phloroglucinol and Hydroxy benzoic acid were detected.

Conclusion: A number of bioactive compounds were detected in the selected plants and on the basis of findings it was concluded that selected plants could be used medicinally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thyroid Status, Renal Profile and Electrolytes in Postmenopausal Women

Usha Sachidananda Adiga

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35254

Introduction: Diminished gonadal hormones after menopause are found to influence thyroid status, renal functions as well as electrolyte balance. There are a few published data in this area, to the best of our knowledge. Aim of our study was to compare thyroid status, renal profile and serum electrolytes in postmenopausal women with those in reproductive age group as well as to find the association between them.

Methods: A case control study, which included fifty post menopausal and fifty women in reproductive age group were compared with respect to their thyroid status, renal profile and electrolytes. Statistical analysis was done using Student’s ‘t’ test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Odd’s ratio.

Results: Postmenopausal women had a significantly higher TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) levels (P<0.05), elevated creatinine (P<0.05), lower eGFR (P<0.001) and sodium levels (P<0.05) as compared to controls. Post menopausal women with higher TSH levels were at greater risk of developing low GFR (glomerular filtration rate) and hyponatremia. A significant positive correlation was observed between age and TSH. A significant negative correlation was observed between TSH and sodium as well as eGFR in post menopausal women.

Conclusion: Subclinical hypothyroidism, altered renal functions and hyponatremia observed in post menopausal women suggest a need for routine screening panel, which includes thyroid and renal function tests.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Proximate Composition and Essential Oils of Processed Pentaclethra macrophylla Seeds

U. C. Nwosu, W. B. Abbey, E. B. Essien, R. C. Ohiri

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35235

The chemical composition of various stages of processed Pentaclethra macrophylla (PM) seeds were investigated using standard analytical procedures. The PM seeds were processed in different stages, of raw (uncooked), 1st cooking (cooked for 16-18 hours and dehulled), 2nd cooking (dehulled sliced seeds cooked for 3 hrs), fermented, salted and fermented. Proximate analysis showed high protein content of highest value of (25.94 ± 0.48%) in fermented sample and 22.42 ± 0.47% in raw sample. Moisture was highest in fermented sample (9.5 ± 0.10%) and lowest in raw sample (4.05 ± 0.57%). Ash content in fermented sample was (5.28 ± 0.35%) and is highest and least in the raw sample (1.08 ± 0.14%). Raw sample has the highest lipid content of (62.75 ± 0.47%) and lowest in salted and fermented sample (43.86 ± 0.58%). Fibre content ranges from 2.64 ± 0.33% in fermented sample to 20.07 ± 0.55% in raw samples. GC/MS analysis of essential oils showed that Raw had eleven essential oils with 9,12–Octadecadienoic acid (96.30%) highest; n-Hexadecanoic acid (0.185%) lowest, 1st cooking has 10 essential oils with methyl ester of 9,12 – Octadecadienoic acid, (95.481%) highest; Cyclopropaneoctanal, 2-Octyl (0.092%) lowest. 2nd cooking has 10 essential oils with Oleic acid (94.909%) highest; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (0.031%) lowest. Fermented has 9 essential oils with 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (96.807%) highest; Cycloeicosane (0.064%) lowest. Salted and fermented sample has 6 essential oil with 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (55.598%) highest, n-Hexadecanoic acid (0.598%) lowest. The results showed that the seeds could thus served as a functional food and can be added to existing food supplements.