Open Access Opinion Article

The Phosphocreatine-ATP Energy Shuttle and Muscle Action: Misconceptions, Oversights and Insights

Sosale Chandrasekhar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/34643

The role of phosphocreatine (PC) as an ‘energy buffer’ in muscular contraction needs to be reassessed from several viewpoints. In particular, the view that the hydrolysis of PC is more exergonic than that of ATP is erroneous, as the enthalpy and Gibbs free energy changes (respectively) have generally been compared. (Apparently, the reactions are about equally exergonic.) Even so, the question of how PC levels build up during the rest phase at the expense of ATP remains. Also, in a general sense, the need for PC is intriguing in itself, as its presence can be obviated by maintaining sufficient levels of ATP. Plausible explanations are proposed for these apparent conundrums.        

Open Access Original Research Article

Resistin Inhibits the Synthesis of Insulin by miR-494 through Traget on CREB1

Fengyun Wen, Yi Yang, Hubin Fang, Leitong Nie, Lei Li, Yi Chen, Yu Liang, Qing Wang, Zaiqing Yang

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/33384

Resistin was first described as an adipokine and found to impair the pancreatic beta cells. The reason that it was named “resistin” is because it related with insulin resistance. Our previous study showed that miR-494 were significantly downregulated by resistin, while it is unknown that whether miR-494 involved in the regulation of insulin synthesis induced by resistin. The current study investigated the effects of miR-494 in the insulin synthesis reduced by resistin. MIN6 cells were treated with resistin and insulin synthesis was measured, the results showed that the insulin synthesis were significantly reduced by resistin. The over-expression of miR-494 inhibited the insulin synthesis both in diet culture and high glucose medium. Further, we discovered that miR-494 down-regulated the protein level of CREB1 by pairing with sites in the 3’UTR, which suggested that CREB1 is one of a target genes of miR-494. In conclusion, resistin inhibit the synthesis partly by miR-494 through target on CREB1 gene.

Open Access Original Research Article

25 (OH) Vitamin D level and Calcium/Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders in Patients Living with HIV in Abidjan

Lydie Boyvin, Jeanne Armande Aké, Kipré Laurent Séri, Gervais Mélaine M’boh, Adou Francis Yapo, Joseph Allico Djaman

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/34351

Aims: The present study was to evaluate the serum calcium level, phosphorus and 25 (OH) vitamin D subjects during HIV infection; precisely in patients living with HIV (PLHIV).

Study Design: Prospective and experimental study, involving a cohort of blood samples from HIV-negative and positive subjects.

Place and Duration: The study was carried out in the clinical and fundamental biochemistry Department of the Institut Pasteur of Côte d’Ivoire from June 2014 to December 2014.

Methodology: A cohort of 220 samples from adult blood samples, comprising of 110 HIV negative controls and 110 samples from PLHIV subjects, were analyzed. After confirmation of HIV status (through an HIV rapid test) of subjects, CD4 lymphocytes were measured through flow cytometry analysis using an automated FacsCaliburTM. Analysis of calcium and phosphorus electrolytes was performed on the Cobas Integra 400 Plus and 25 (OH) vitamin D on the automated mini VIDAS, from the sera obtained from different blood samples from HIV positive and negative subjects.

Results: The identified disorders in the PLHIV were hypocalcemia (P = 0.0009) and hyperphosphoremia (p < 0.0001). 57% of PLHIV against 67% of the control subjects showed normal levels of 25 (OH) vitamin D (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: We noticed a good level of 25 (OH) Vitamin D reserve in PLHIV among more than 50% of PLHIV. Calcium and Phosphorous metabolism disorders observed in people living with HIV in Côte d'Ivoire are due to a deficiency of the active form 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interleukin 10 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Nephropathy in Egyptian Diabetic Patients

Mohammad Sayyed Bakheet

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/34735

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is recognized as one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease. In T2DM patients, a certain cytokine genotype is associated with an increased susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy.

Aim: In this study we clarify the relation between IL-10 gene polymorphisms at position (-592 A/C) and its plasma levels in T2D Egyptian patients with and without nephropathy.

Methods: 80 subjects were enrolled in this study, 30 diabetic patients without nephropathy, 30 DN patients and 20 healthy control subjects. For all subjects, kidney function tests, FBG, HbA1c, estimation of micro-albuminuria, plasma IL-10 level and IL-10 gene polymorphism were done.

Results and Conclusions: Diabetic patients with and without nephropathy exhibited significantly higher FBG, HbA1c than healthy subjects. Creatinine levels were increased in DN patients compared to both diabetic without nephropathy and healthy subjects. There is significant increase in micro-albuminuria levels in DN patients compared to diabetic without nephropathy and healthy control subjects. There is significant increase in IL-10 levels in DN patients compared to diabetic without nephropathy and healthy control subjects. The IL-10-(592) CC genotype associated with an increased risk of type 2 DM and the C allele was significantly associated with an increased risk of type 2 DM, there are no significant differences between the two T2D patient groups as regard IL-10 gene polymorphism.     

Open Access Original Research Article

Sensory Properties and Microbial Characteristics of Cookies Prepared from Refined Wheat Flour Supplemented with Sweet Potato Flour and Whey Protein Concentrate

Blessy Sagar Seelam, John David, Neha Singh, Sonia Morya

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/33992

A study was conducted for sensory analysis and microbial assay for the cookies supplemented with refined wheat flour, sweet potato flour and whey proteins concentrate (WPC-80). The cookies made were nutritious products for all peoples. The product on the whole composed of sweet potato flour, whey protein concentrate (WPC-80), refined wheat flour and other ingredients such as butter and sugar. The product was made with different formulations. Sensory evaluation was done for acceptability of the product and microbial study was conducted for the developed cookies. Results from sensory analysis revealed that all treatment combinations are in acceptable level. Among all, T3 HT1 (20% SPF and 20% WPC) scored best in overall acceptability. The SPC ranges from 1.400±0.548 to 4.400±0.548 from 0th to 30th days, Yeast and mould was NIL in 0th and 15th day on 30th it was recorded. Coli forms count is NIL in 0th day and it was recorded in 15th and 30th days for different treatment combination.