Open Access Original Research Article

Weekly Occurrence of Gymnodinium catenatum and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in the Mediterranean Shore of Morocco

Rachid Amanhir, Asia Benhadouch, Hamid Taleb, Benlahcen Rijal Leblad, Paulo Vale, Mohammed Blaghen

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/14413

Weekly monitoring for the presence of Gymnodinium catenatum and PSP toxins in mussels (Mytilus galloprovinciallis) harvested on the growing site in Fnideq on the Mediterranean Moroccan coast was carried out from 2010 until 2012. The enumeration of G. catenatum cells in water was conducted using the light inverted microscope. Monitoring of PSP toxins levels in mussels was achieved using the mouse bioassay (MBA) method and toxin's profile was performed by HPLC/FD in a selected sample.

The results showed a correlation between the evolution of G. catenatum cells concentration and the PSP toxin level accumulated in mussels. The appearances of G. catenatum and PSP toxin concentration increases were observed at different periods, between January and February 2010, in September 2010 and between November 2011 and January 2012.

Liquid chromatographic analysis revealed a composition reflecting G. catenatum profile composed mainly of toxins from the N-sulfocarbamoyls family, as well as the presence for the first time in Morocco of the hydroxybenzoates analogues of saxitoxin, so called GC-toxins, which have been recently detected in Australia strains of G. catenatum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Properties of Probiotic Soursop Juice Using Pediococcus pentosaceus LBF2 as Starter

Stephanie Clara Akpeji, Bukola Christianah Adebayo-Tayo, Jadesola Fawzhia Sanusi, Solomon Omoniyi Alao

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/32954

Aims: Production of probiotic soursop juice and determination of properties of the juice samples for 3 weeks of storage at 4°C.

Study Design: To determine the properties of soursop juice produced using Pediococcus pentosaceus LBF2 as starter culture.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria between July to December 2016.

Methodology: Production of soursop juice using Pediococcus pentosaceus LBF2 as probiotic starter and determination of viability of the starter, physicochemical, nutritional and organoleptic properties of the samples kept at 4°C for 3 weeks was determined. The soursop juice with     probiotic starter was labeled Psop and the soursop juice without the probiotic starter was         labeled Pcont.

Results: The probiotic strain was viable in the samples during storage (1.57×107 CFU/mL – 7.9×107CFU/mL) and the highest viability (1.85×107CFU/mL) was recorded at 2 weeks of storage. The lactic acid content of the probioticated samples ranged from 1621.44 - 2450.176 mg/l during storage. There was a general reduction in the pH of the probioticated samples. The Total Soluble Solid of the Psop and Pcont samples ranged from 15 – 6.0 and 13.5 - 8.0.

The samples were acceptable and strongly liked in terms of sensory attributes in the 1st and 2nd week of storage. The Pcont samples were extremely disliked in the 4th week of storage. The crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber of the samples ranged from 0.58b - 0.65a%, 0.04c – 0.07a% and 0.48c-1.91a%. The highest crude protein was recorded at week 2 and 3 of storage. There was a general reduction in the crude fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate content during storage.

Conclusion: In conclusion the probioticated samples had a longer shelf-life, contain viable probiotic candidate, strongly acceptable with good nutritional composition which can confer a strong health beneficial effect on the consumer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Anti-diabetic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis Stem Bark Extracts

Azantsa Kingue Gabin Boris, Djuikoo Nouteza Imelda, Kuikoua Tchetmi Wilfried, Takuissu Guy, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius Oben

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/34051

Aim: Diabetes Mellitus remains amongst the highest cause of mortality in the world. This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical composition of stem bark extracts of Citrus sinensis and study their anti-hyperglycaemic activities as well as their modulatory effects on starch and sucrose digestion on normal Wistar rats.

Methodology: Stem bark Aqueous (AqE), Ethanolic (EtE), Hydroethanolic (HEE) extracts of        C. sinensis were prepared. The content of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids was determined. Anti-hyperglycaemic activity was evaluated in vivo by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 120 minutes. Wistar male rats of 180-200 g were used. After an overnight fast, their glycaemia were measured (T0). Rats were then distributed into five groups of six each: Control (water), Tests    (400 mg/kg of each (AqE, EtE, HEE) extracts), Reference (4 mg/kg B. W., glibenclamide). Thirty minutes later, an overload of 2 g/kg B. W. of glucose was administered to all the groups. Glycaemia was measured by tail pricks: 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes after glucose administration. Sucrose            (2 g/kg B. W.), starch (1 g/kg B. W.) and acarbose in co-administration were used as substrates for digestion in a protocol similar to OGTT.

Results: EtE was very rich in polyphenols (435.56 ± 3.85 µg of eq catechin/mg). Area under the Curves, AUC (mg.min.dL-1, P=.05) were: 4015, 786.6, 1163 for PC, AqE group, Reference respectively and confirmed that AqE was more efficient than glibenclamide. AqE also showed moderate efficacy with sucrose (841.2 vs 1172 mg.min/dL, P=.05) and starch digestion (892.8 vs 1148; P=.05) compared to positive controls.

Conclusion: Therefore, stem bark aqueous extract of C. sinensis is able to reduce postprandial glycaemia by slowing down the absorption of glucose, challenging the efficacy of glibenclamide,an anti-diabetic drug. Also, AqE has moderate efficacy on starch and sucrose digestion. AqE could thus be further explored for its potency in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Ficus capreifolia Leaf Extract via in-vitro Models

Tetam Jack Gbenenee, Ndokiari Boisa, Tebekeme Okoko

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/34138

Aims: To carry out preliminary phytochemical screening and determine the antioxidant ability of Ficus capreifolia leaf extract.

Study Design: The study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical profile of Ficus capreifolia leaf and the potential antioxidant activity and comparing to reference antioxidant vitamin C.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was done in the Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University from May to August 2016.

Methodology: The extract was screened for the presence of some phytochemicals. Thereafter, the antioxidant potential was determined by assessing the hydrogen peroxide scavenging ability, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and ferrous ion reducing ability and comparing them to the corresponding ability of vitamin C.

Results: Phytochemicals detected include tannins, carotenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides and polyphenols. The extract also scavenged hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and also reduced ferrous ions significantly when compared to vitamin C.

Conclusion: The leaf extract exhibited significant antioxidant activities which could be ascribed to antioxidant phytochemicals such as flavonoids, polyphenols which were detected. This corroborates the reported traditional use of the plant and can be further exploited pharmacologically.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Individuals Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, North Western Nigeria

Hadiza Abdullahi, Usman Maigatari, Ado Muhammad Dakata

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/33816

Background: Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency is the most important disorder of the pentose phosphate pathway in erythrocyte metabolism resulting in decreased activity of the enzyme. In individuals infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), G-6-PD deficiency could induce hematological complications.

Aim: Given the large number of people living with HIV in Nigeria, this study was carried out to determine G-6-PD activity and the prevalence of its deficiency in HIV infected individuals. Also its possible role in inducing hematological complications in the infected individuals on treatment with Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) and prophylactics was evaluated.

Method of Study: Blood samples collected from 150 HIV infected individuals and 50 apparently healthy individuals (controls) aged 21-60 years were subjected to CD4 count, complete blood count analysis and a quantitative G-6-PD activity assay.

Results: A 22.5% prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency was found in the study population. We found no significant correlation (P=0.32) between G6PD activity and CD4 count. Although, hemolytic anemia was absent in all G-6-PD deficient individuals in all study groups, hemoglobin and packed cell volume concentrations were significantly lower (P=.05) in the G-6-PD deficient individuals in the HIV group with opportunistic infections who were on ART and antimicrobial medication compared with the control group and the HIV ART naïve group. We also found a significant (P=.001) correlation between hemoglobin and packed cell volume with G-6-PD deficiency in the HIV group on ARTs and prophylactics

Conclusion: The high prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency in the study indicates the need for more attention to be given to this enzymopathy. The absence of hemolytic anemia found in this study should not deter clinicians from thorough G-6-PD screening of patients before prescription of medications for HIV infected individuals.