Open Access Short Research Article

Water Stress Effect on Total Antioxiant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Solanum scabrum Mill and Solanum scabrum in Kiambu, Kenya

Odhiambo Peter Okello, Mildred P. Nawiri, Winfred Musila, Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/33715

Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate water stress effect on total phenolics and total antioxidants of selected African nightshades and determine any possible variations in the amount of total phenolics and total antioxidants among the accessions grown.

Study Design: Study was conducted on the basis of randomized complete block design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Kenyatta University Agricultural farm in Kiambu County of Kenya. Greenhouse experiments were carried out in the same farm.

Methodology: A greenhouse and field experiment was conducted to investigate effects of water stress on total phenolic and total antioxidant contents of Solanum scabrum and Solanum villosum. The two African nightshades were subjected to different soil water tensions of 15cbars, 50cbars and 85cbars. After a month of transplanting, samples from the different blocks were collected fortnightly and prepared for total phenolic and total antioxidant determination.

Results: Obtained data showed that Solanum villosum had a higher concentration of both the total phenolics and antioxidant activity in the shoots (46.41 g/Kg total phenolic content and 52.68% total antioxidant activity) while Solanum scabrum had higher concentration in the roots (25.06 g/Kg total phenolic content and 27.18% total antioxidant activity).

Conclusion: Total phenolics and total antioxidant accumulation not only depend on irrigation variation but also on the accessions grown.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum C-reactive Protein in Psoriasis Vulgaris: A Case-control Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital from Southern India

Krishna Murari

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/31811

Aims: The present study was designed to assess the levels of serum C - reactive protein in different severity group of psoriasis vulgaris.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Clinically diagnosed and untreated psoriasis vulgaris patients are recruited from out patients department of Dermatology, J.J.M. Medical College, Davangere, Karnataka (India) from May 2015 to April 2016.

Methodology: A case control study was conducted on sixty clinically diagnosed and untreated cases of psoriasis vulgaris. Sixty age and sex matched healthy controls were also recruited from general population of Davangere, Karnataka. The psoriasis patients were divided into three groups mild, moderate, severe based on Psoriasis Area Severity Index. Venus blood sample was collected from each study subjects and analyzed for C - reactive protein by immunoturbimetric method.

Results: Mean serum C-reactive protein were found to be significantly (<0.001) higher in various severity groups of psoriasis (5.96 ± 3.96 mg/dl) as compare to healthy controls (0.28 ± 0.12 mg/dl).

Conclusion: Serum C-reactive protein may be useful immune marker to evaluate the severity of psoriasis and could be used to monitor psoriasis and its treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Expression Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

B. Suchithra, V. R. Devaraj, Jyotirmoy Ghosh, R. Nageshbabu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/32784

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), is an important subsistence oil yielding crop of the semi-arid tropics and often exposed to several environmental cues (high temperature, drought & heavy metal). The WRKY transcription factor (TF) is one of the master regulator, and play vital role in stress responses. However, far less information is available on functional characterization and tolerance mechanism of stress responsive WRKY genes in groundnut till date. In this study, a comprehensive phylogenetic, protein features, gene structure and motif analysis of WRKY TF gene family was carried out. We conducted expression profiling of 10 WRKY genes under high temperature, drought and heavy metal (CdCl2) in various tissues. Majority of the AhWRKY (Arachis hypogaea WRKY) proteins were clustered and share close relationship with Arabidopsis and Glycine max. RT- qPCR analysis of AhWRKY genes revealed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns in response to at least one abiotic stress. In particular, AhWRKY41 expression level was found to be maximum in all the stress conditions. On the other hand, AhWRKY20 and AhWRKY22 were down regulated. The obtained data demonstrate that AhWRKY41 may act as a positive regulator in drought/ high temperature/ heavy metal and would exhibit stress tolerance mechanism by activation of stress-associated gene expression. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution of the Pronostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index (PINI) of the Malnourished Children of 6-59 Months during Supplementation with Soya and Spirulina in Côte d’ivoire

Youan Gouanda Pascal, Kouakou Yeboue Koffi François, Bamba Abou, Koffi Allali Eugene, Yapi Houphouet Felix

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/32951

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the evolution of the Pronostic of Inflammatory and nutritional Index (PINI) during the supplementation with soya and spirulina in children from 6 to 59 months.

Study Design: Hundred ninety-five (195) children moderate malnourished selected according to WHO standards.

Place and Duration of Study: Children selected were distributed in three groups in order to receive in addition to the family food during one month respectively millet porridge (group 1; 65 children), millet porridge strengthened in the soya (group 2; 65 children) and millet porridge enriched in the spirulina (group 3; 65 children).

Methodology: Nutritional and inflammatory parameters were measured at the beginning and the end of study. PINI was also calculated in this study.

Results: The group 3 (Spirulina) recorded significant variations (p< 0.05) regarding all the parameters (decrease of CRP and a1-GPA and increase of albumin and prealbumin). As for the PINI, it has been significantly (p< 0.05) reduced in group 2 and a high significant decrease was shown in group 3 (p< 0.01). It emerges from the study that the spirulina improves more quickly the PINI as nutritional supplement than the Soya compared to family food.

Conclusion: This study indicates spirulina and soybean could be used to improve nutritional status in children suffering from acute malnutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the in vitro Antioxidant Activities of Leaves Extracts of Persea americana and Ficus exasperata Collected from Akure, Nigeria

S. I. Awala, O. E. Ajayi, O. A. Alabi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/24110

Aim: The study examined the phytochemical composition and antioxidant potentials of leaves extracts of Persea americana and Ficus exasperata obtained from Akure, Ondo state.

Study Design: Methanol and acetone were used as extracting solvents for the leaves samples. Test for alkaloids, terpenoids, cardiac glycoside, tannin, saponin, vitamin C, total flavonoids, total phenolics as well as the in vitro antioxidant assays such as scavenging of DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals, chelation of ferrous ion, and inhibition of iron II (Fe2+) induced lipid peroxidation were evaluated.

Results: The acetone extract of F. exasperata has the highest alkaloids (68.60%), total phenol (5.08 mg/g), total flavonoids (4.94 mg/1 g) and vitamin C contents (22.30 mg/g). At a concentration of 2 mg/mL, the leaves extracts were able to scavenge DPPH (above 70%), chelate ferrous          ion (above 70%) and inhibit the production of malondialdehyde (below 30%). However, the          positive controls, Butylated hydroxyl toluene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene) and Ethelenediaminetetraacetic acid, were more effective than the leaves extracts at                       similar concentration.

Conclusion: Results from this study revealed that the leaves of Persea americana and Ficus exasperata are effective in combating free radicals and their effects in vitro. It therefore supports the claims that the plants leaves are promising candidates in developing drugs for the treatment of radical associated ailments.