Open Access Original Research Article

Correlations of Plasma Biotinidase Levels with Hepatic Synthetic Functions in Children with Chronic Liver Diseases

Tahia H. Saleem, Hamdy N. Eltalawy, Ahmed El-Abd Ahmed, Nagla H. Abu-Faddan, Mohammed H. Hassan, Ayat A. Sayed, Hussein M. Eldeeb

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/32764

Aims: Certain liver diseases can cause decreased synthesis of liver proteins or enzymes, including biotinidase, thereby reducing biotinidase activity in serum. The present study aimed to assess plasma biotinidase level in pediatric patients with compensated and decompensated chronic liver disease and to investigate the correlations between plasma biotinidase levels and the plasma albumin and prothrombin concentrations so that can identify the possible utility of plasma biotinidase levels as a predictor for hepatic synthetic function impairment .

Methodology: A total of 29 pediatric patients (20 male and 9 female) with chronic liver disease were included in the study (16 compensated and 13 decompensated). Plasma albumin, prothrombin time and concentration were measured in the included patients. Assay of plasma biotinidase level was done by ELISA, using commercially available assay kit, for both patients and control group.

Results: mean±SD of plasma biotinidase activities were found 4.4±1.2, 8.2±3, 8.7±0.7 IU\L  (decompensated pediatric patients, compensated pediatric patients and control group respectively). Plasma biotinidase levels were statistically significant lower in pediatric patients with decompensated liver disease versus pediatric patients with compensated liver disease and control group (p˂0.001). There was statistically significant negative correlation between plasma biotinidase levels versus prothrombin time "PT" and international normalization ratio "INR" (p˂0.05) and statistically significant positive correlation between plasma biotinidase levels versus prothrombin concentration "PC" and albumin (p˂0.001).

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested that plasma biotinidase level could be used as a predictor for hepatic synthetic function impairment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Phytophthora Infection on Nutrient Composition of Theobroma cacao L.

E. D. Fagbohun, B. I. Aderiye

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/31872

In this study, the proximate and mineral analyses of non-infected and infected cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) pods, nibs and testa were investigated. The ash content (g/100 g) of non-infected pods (10.7) and nibs (8.0) were higher than those of infected cocoa pods (9.3) and nibs (7.8) while that of the testa was 13.1 in non-infected pods, the value was higher in infected pods (15.4). The moisture content (g/100 g) was found to be higher in the non-infected nibs (6.3) and testa (9.8). Crude protein (g/100 g) was found to be higher in infected pods (12.8) and nibs (18.4). However, the testa of non-infected nibs had 19.4. For carbohydrate, the values (g/100 g) in pod (35.7), nibs (40.7) and testa (30.9) were found to be higher in non-infected than those of the infected pods. Zn, Co and Fe of non-infected cocoa pods, nibs and testa were found to be higher than those of the infected pods. The Mn content (mg/100 g) of non-infected pods (5.3) and testa (5.1) were higher than those of infected 4.5 and 3.4 respectively but the nibs of non-infected pods had a value of 4.2. However, the Cu content (mg/100g) of non-infected pod (1.2) was found to be higher than that of infected pod (0.3). Total reducing sugars of infected pod (33.0), nibs (24.1) and testa (32.0) were higher than those of non infected pods (14.6, 20.1 and 18.4 respectively). From this study, it can be concluded that Phytophthora infection depleted the nutritional content of T. cacao beans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Investigation of the Effects of the Commonly-consumed Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Zobo Drinks) on Body Weight, Glucose Level and Lipid Profile Using Normal Wistar Albino Rats

Chukwu, Charles Nnanna, Akaninwor, Joyce Oronne, Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/26069

Aim: Investigating and comparing the effect of administration of different preparations of the commonly-consumed Hibiscus sabdariffa (Zobo) drinks on body weight, glucose level and lipid profile.

Study Design: Animal models (Wistar Albino Rats) with daily administration of the same concentration of different zobo drink samples.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria and its environs between November 2014 and February 2015.

Methodology: Thirty (30) Wistar albino rats were grouped into six (6) groups of five rats each. Group A served as the control and B was administered an unblended zobo drink. Groups C – E were administered locally produced zobo samples and F was a National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC)-branded zobo drink. A concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the samples was administered orally to all the groups for 21 days. Changes in body weight, glucose level and lipid profile were analyzed and compared

Results: The percentage weight gains in groups B, C, E and F (4.93%, 6.68%, 0.55%, and 9.99%) were very low compared with the control (23.75%). The glucose level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in groups B and C, significantly higher in group F and showed no significant difference in D and E when compared with the control. Total cholesterol level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in groups C, E and F, while High density lipoprotein level was higher in all the groups but only significantly (P < 0.05) in group D when compared with the control. Triglyceride, Low density lipoprotein and Very low density lipoprotein levels showed no significant difference when compared with the control.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the aqueous extract of different samples of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Zobo drink) possesses anti-obesity, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnostic Utility of Plasma Chitotriosidase, Total Acid Phosphatase Activity, Ferritin and Globulin Levels in Screening for Gaucher Disease

Mohammed H. Hassan, Ayat A. Sayed, Ahmed El-Abd Ahmed, Tahia H. Saleem

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/32782

Aims: Gaucher disease "GD" is one of the most common glycolipid storage disorders. Several circulating molecules thought to be secreted by Gaucher cells have been studied as biological markers of disease. We investigate and compare the validity of using plasma chitotriosidase "ChT", total acid phosphatase activity, ferritin, and globulin in predicting GD in pediatric patients.

Methodology: A cross sectional hospital based study, carried out on 43 pediatric patients (23 GD patients and 20 patients with suspected storage disorder). Complete blood counts, globulin assays, calculated A/G ratio, β-glucocerebrosidase activity assays, plasma protein electrophoresis, ELISA assays of plasma ChT and ferritin, colorimetric assay of plasma total acid phosphatase activity and GBA gene mutation analysis, were done for the included patients.

Results: Significantly higher plasma ChT levels and increased total acid phosphatase activity were observed in GD patients versus those suspected to have storage disorders (P-value <0.05). High plasma ChT and ferritin have higher sensitivity, while high plasma total acid phosphatase activity, and globulin and low A/G ratio have higher specificity in diagnosing GD.

Conclusions: Plasma ChT and total acid phosphatase activity, both together are more valid than ferritin and globulin in screening for GD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Harvesting Stage and Storage Temperature on Nutritional Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) cv. PKM-1

M. L. Mini

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/31858

Premise of Research: It is found that the nutritional quality of fruits varies with the harvesting stage and the storage temperature. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of a popular tomato cultivar in South India, PKM-1 harvested at different maturity stages and during storage.

Methodology: Tomato fruits were harvested at mature green, yellow-green and red ripe stages and the nutritional quality of fresh tomatoes were determined. The fruits were stored at room temperature and in refrigerator at 6oC and the changes in biochemical parameters were estimated.

Pivotal Results: Ascorbic acid, total sugars and lycopene contents increased during ripening and were found to be highest in red ripe stage. Titrable acidity and total phenols were highest in mature green tomatoes and decreased during ripening. Storage studies revealed that ascorbic acid, titrable acidity and total phenols decreased during storage. Total sugars and lycopene contents increased during storage.

Conclusions: Tomato fruits stored at 6oC showed better nutritional value due to lesser change in nutrient content. The study revealed that the nutritional quality of tomato harvested at red ripe stage had the highest nutritional value and a low temperature of 6oC favoured better shelf-life and is ideal for storage of harvested tomato.