Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fermentation on Nutritional and Microbial Qualities of Ash Neutralized Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Ojokoh Anthony Okhonlaye, Adaja Oluwabunmi Olabisi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/30168

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of fermentation on the nutritional and microbial qualities of Roselle calyces from two States in Nigeria. Roselle calyx was fermented naturally (FN), fermented with coconut husk ash (FWCHA), Fermented with cocoa pod ash (FWCPA), Fermented with Gmelina tree ash (FWGTA) separately for 72 hours. The chemical and antinutrient compositions of raw and fermented calyx were determined using standard procedures. The microbial assessment of the samples was also determined. Moisture, ash, protein and carbohydrate contents increased significantly in fermented samples compared to raw calyx, however, the fat content reduced and crude fibre varied significantly likewise the antinutrients (Tannin, Hydrogen cyanide, Phytate) significantly reduced by the fermentation process (α=0.05). A total of 8 organisms were isolated during fermentation, which included four (4) bacteria, one (1) yeast, and three (3) moulds. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated before fermentation. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli were isolated before and during fermentation at 24 hours and could not be isolated after. Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae  Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo were isolated throughout the fermentation. Microorganisms isolated during fermentation include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Ripe Denettia tripetala Fruit (Pepper Fruit) on Indices of Liver and Kidney Function in Male Albino Wistar Rats

E. I. Akpakpan, U. E. Bassey, O. E. Etim, U. M. Ekanemesang

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/31490

Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of ethanolic extract of ripe Denettia tripetala (DT) fruits on indices of kidney and liver function in male albino rats.

Study Design: Twenty (20) male albino rats weighing between 160–210 g were used for the study and were randomly assigned into four groups of five animals each. Group 4 served as control while Groups 1, 2, and 3 received orally the ethanol extracts of Denettia tripetala administered daily at doses of 262.20 mg/kg, 524.40 mg/kg and 786.61 mg/kg respectively for 30 days.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratory, University of Uyo between May 2016 and June 2016.

Methodology: Serum creatinine, urea, electrolytes, albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were assayed using Randox kits, USA.

Results: The result showed that there was an increase in the level of potassium in Group 2 and Group 3 compared to control. However, only Group 3 compared to control was significantly increased at (P=0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the level of creatinine, urea, sodium and chloride when compared to control. There was a significant increase (P=0.05) in the level of ALP in Group 2 when compared to control. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total bilirubin, albumin, ALT and AST levels in the treated groups when compared to control.

Conclusion: The study suggests that ethanol extract of ripe Denettia tripetala fruit was not toxic to the liver and kidney. However further work is needed to confirm the results of the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxicological Response of Zea mays to Crude Oil: The Ecological Effects of Exposure to Contaminants

A. C. Udebuani, O. Otitoju, P. N. Abara, E. C. Eze, M. C. Duru

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/31376

Cytotoxicity of different concentrations of crude oil on Zea mays a widely cultivated crop in Nigeria was investigated for 21 days, using physicochemical and cytotoxicity assay. The experiment was conducted in green-house under controlled environmental conditions. The cytotoxic effects were determined based on the changes in growth rate and cellular morphology of the crop plant. Results obtained showed that pH of the polluted soils is in the range of 4.4 – 4.9, while the unpolluted sample was 7.0. The values obtained for exchangeable base, effective cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, total hydrocarbon were higher in the polluted soil samples compared to the unpolluted soil sample. However, nitrogen, phosphorus and conductivity values were higher in the unpolluted soil sample than in the polluted. Results of the investigation revealed that the crude oil polluted soil affected negatively the growth parameters of Zea mays as the number of leaves, plant height, and total leaf area were reduced in the exposed plant sample compared to the unexposed. A disproportionate increase in cell size (hypertrophy) of new cells which later ruptures as the get cells get older was observed in the cells of plants exposed to crude oil than in the unexposed plant. The concentrations of heavy metals Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cd in the polluted oil samples were higher in the polluted soil. However, the total hydrocarbon content of the polluted soil samples correlated positively with the heavy metal content and plant biomass of the polluted samples. This study therefore confirms the cytotoxicity effects of crude oil on a common plant, which produces one of the staple foods in Nigeria. Remediation measures should be adopted to reduce the impact of crude oil on the plant sample used especially in area where oil activities are going on.

Open Access Original Research Article

Essential Mineral of the New Shoots of Palmyra Enriched with Moringa oleifera Leaves and Vigna unguiculata Bean Powders

Mahan Makado Romuald, Deigna- Mockey Viviane, Coulibaly Adama, Sidibe Daouda, Biego Godi Henri Marius

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/32518

The purpose of this study is to contribute to a better valorization of Palmyra (Borassus aethiopum) by the content determination in essential minerals of the flours of its young shoots enriched with the powders of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) beans, also to evaluate the nutritive contributions from the consumption. For this purpose, the mineral composition of formulations obtained using the central composite design and two industrial infantile flours (ET1 and ET2) were determined.

The analysis of the macroelements (Ca, P, K, and Na) gave the following contents: Calcium (122.90 ± 2.20 – 355 ± 1.79 mg/100 g), Phosphorus (175.41 ± 0.81 - 481.50 ± 1.75 mg/100 g), potassium (547.95 ± 1.54 - 833.14 ± 2.68 mg/100 g) and sodium (11.14 ± 1.08 - 200.04 ± 2.21 mg / 100 g). The studied flours provided the microelements (Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) contents following: magnesium (100.11 ± 2.30 - 159.26 ± 2.04 mg/100 g), Iron (5.12 ± 0.08 - 23.20 ± 1.21 mg/100 g), copper (2.84 ± 0.23 - 6.97 ± 0.45 mg/100 g) and zinc (0.63 ± 0.03 - 16.60 ± 0.64 mg/100 g). The average daily quantity of flour consumed by a child from 1 to 2 years in Africa is 250 g. The contributions estimated in minerals of 250 g of EF07 or EE09 flours are more than 3 times higher than those obtained with B. aethiopum flour. They contributed to more than 100% of a child for 1 to 2 years minerals needs revealed in this study except for sodium and with more than 50% of the needs of a adult of 70 kg. Similar results are obtained with the reference flours used in this study. The popularization of these composite food formulations could help to ensure the food security of populations, preserve biodiversity and promote the fight against poverty and the advancement of the desert.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and Estimation of Metabolizable Energy Values of Sun-dried, Fermented and Rumen Digesta-Ensiled Cassava Root Meal in Poultry

O. A. Akapo, W. A. Olayemi, R. A. Olorunsola, A. O. Oso, O. O. Akapo, A. M. Bamgbose, A. O. Mafimidiwo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/32838

The experiment was carried out to investigate the chemical analysis, fibre fractions and mineral composition of cassava. Detailed chemical analysis of raw cassava root (RCR) and processed cassava root meal (PCRM) was assayed. Results obtained were Subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) as applicable to a completely Randomized Design (CRD).Significant means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. (RDECRM) had the highest crude protein content (27.10%) while raw cassava root meal had the lowest crude protein content (15.00%). The crude fiber (CF) content of the processed cassava ranged from 83.50% in sun dried, fermented 84.60% to 92.00% in rumen digesta ensiled cassava root meal. Metabolizable energy of processed cassava were significantly different (P=.05). AMEn reduced with the inclusion level from (12.32a -11.11c), all other parameters were not affected. The neutral detergent, acid detergent lignin and cellulose were not significantly influenced (P=.05) by the different processing methods. Acid detergent fibre and hemicellulose of raw and processed cassava were significantly different (P=.05) the values ranged from (15.70 -13.17%) and (10.10 - 8.57%) The rumen digesta ensiled cassava root meal proved to be superior to sun dried and fermented cassava.