Open Access Short communication
Malaria is one of the most significant public health problems in the world today; with 97 countries having on-going transmission. Despite advancement in malaria research, the disease continues to be a global problem. This is attributed to inadequate knowledge of Plasmodium falciparum’s physiopathology. This study employed in-silico approaches to design structure based potential drug candidates against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The drug candidates in this study target proteins involved in parasite pyrimidine biosynthesis, type II fatty acid biosynthesis and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Protein sequences were retrieved from PlasmoDB and the 3D structures of the target proteins were retrieved from PDB (RCSB Protein Data Bank- http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/home/home.do) and viewed using PyMOL program to identify the active sites. Structure prediction was done for targets with no available PDB 3D structure using PSvs2 (http://ps2.life.nctu.edu.tw). Ligand screening was done in PubChem databases. Docking and lead optimization was done using Autodock vina and lead molecules generated. The binding affinity analysis showed three lead molecules belonging to cyclopentane-diols and anilines with better docking scores of -10.49 kcal/mol, -10.3 kcal/mol and -12.96 kcal/mol. These molecules can further be tested and validated for their in vitro and in vivo efficacies as antimalarial drugs.
Open Access Original Research Article
Butachlor is a very commonly used pre-emergence herbicide. In the present study, the effect of butachlor at three different application rates (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kg a.i. / ha) on the activities of some soil enzymes, microbial population and transformation and availability of C, N and P in an alluvial soil has been analyzed. The result showed that in general, the application of butachlor has significantly increased activities of most of the enzymes as well as the microbial biomass with greater retention, mineralization and availability of oxidizable C, N and P in soil. The stimulation in activities of enzymes dehydrogenase and phenol oxidase was found to be more pronounced when the herbicide was applied at half recommended field dose (hRFD) . On the other hand, phosphatase, arylsulphatase and phenol oxidase were pronounced at double recommended field dose (dRFD) . As compared to untreated control soil, the application of butachlor induced higher proliferation of total bacteria at recommended field dose (RFD) , fungi at hRFD and actinomycetes at dRFD. Regarding the availability of plant nutrients, we also found that the greater retention of total N, exchangeable NH4+, and soluble NO3- was achieved by applying butachlor at RFD and that of organic C and available P by applying butachlor at dRFD. The correlation analysis showed significant positive correlation between hydrolase enzymes, phosphatase and arylsulphatase (r = 0.74), oxidoreductase enzymes, phenol oxidase and peroxidase (r = 0.706). The fungal population is related to total bacteria (r =0.73), actinomycetes (r = 0.50) and available P (r = 0.65) in soil. The results of the present investigation thus indicate that the application of butachlor significantly induces the growth and activities of microorganisms, resulting in greater retention, mineralization and availability of oxidizable C, N and P in soil but that the stimulation is depend on neither concentration of herbicide nor time of incubation.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: The aims of this study were to characterize the existing genetic diversity from Azad Jammu & Kashmir and to identify some selectable markers based on total leaf protein profiles. The purpose of the investigation was to detect any possible variations among selected cultivars and to document the protein profiling for future record. The total leaf proteins profile based on SDS-PAGE showed bands of lower molecular weight common among all the varieties.
Study Design: Study was conducted on the basis of randomized complete block design.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Field experiment was conducted in different plots in all three districts Mirpur, Bhimber and Kotli and lab experiment was conducted in Department of Botany Mirpur University of Science and Technology during the year 2012-2014.
Methodology: Please write main points of the research methodology applied. Plant sample such as 1 Red wonder 2 Tomato Galia 3 Rizwan tomato Super special -F1 4 Tomato Red King -F1 5 Tomato 117-F1 collected and Following parameters were studied Morphological analys Biochemical analysis by SDS PAGE and Statistical analysis was performed.
Results: Results was confirmed through cluster analysis, principal component analysis and Minitab. Dendrogram was achieved from the cluster analysis of five varieties of Lycopersicum esculentum was based on five morphological traits. Distance estimated based on five morphological traits ranged from 6-60 with an average of 33 Proteins distribution patterns of fourteen cultivars of Lycopersicum esculentum disclose there are significant variations in terms of banding pattern. Analysis of gel electrophorogram of SDS PAGE showed that there are significant differences between the bands of all fourteen cultivars. There were total fourteen bands present in each tomato variety the molecular weight of marker ranges between 10-200 kDa. There were two bands No. 12 and 14 common among all fourteen cultivars. These bands are of low molecular weight with the molecular weight of 20 and 10 kDa, respectively.
Conclusion: It is concluded from present work that genetic diversity existed among all the cultivars. On the basis of all parameter studied, it was found that Red wonder is the best among all lines.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: The present work evaluates the sensory properties of culinary recipes based on mucilage extracted from mucilaginous food plants derived from the Ivorian flora.
Study Design: MFPs edible parts were dried, mucilage were extracted and sensorial analysis was done on recipes based on mucilage.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Biosciences Unit, at Felix Houphouet-Boigny University between January and December 2014.
Methodology: The study was carried out on fruits of A. esculentus (okra), B. mannii (sran), I. gabonensis (kplé) and leaves of C. olitorius (kplala) collected. The mucilage of different plants has been extracted by optimization methods; dishes were made from the mucilages and subjected to a sensory description (aroma, appearance, flavor and viscosity) and a hedonic appreciation.
Results: These dishes have been tested against commonly used recipes. Meals prepared from B. mannii mucilage provided a more appreciable viscosity than other dishes; however this sauce is less preferred than the reference recipe. On the other hand, the bitterness, the astringency and the sour aftertaste were more perceived in the mucilages than in the references recipes. The flavors and appearance of dishes base on mucilage were generally less perceived. As a result, the references were more preferred for A. esculentus, I. gabonensis and C. olitorius respectively between 71.87% and 81.25%, while the recipe based on mucilage of B. mannii (sran), the reference preference remains identical to that of the mucilage.
Conclusion: Culinary recipes could also be considered from mucilage extracted from mucilaginous food plants.
Open Access Review Article
Triterpenoids are the most promising plant secondary metabolites. Several triterpenoids, including ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, celastrol, pristimerin, lupeol and avicins are representative group of phytochemicals possesses biological properties. Anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-biotic, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, acetyl cholinesterase, anti-wrinkle and anti-feedant activities of these compounds is measured. Role for triterpenes in the cancer setting is also gradually emerging. Triterpenoids are highly multifunctional and structurally diverse organic compounds, characterized by a basic backbone modified in multiple ways, allowing the formation of more than 20,000 naturally occurring triterpenoid varieties.
Fusidic acid is a representative member of terpenes, which has found clinical applications. It is non-allergic, has relatively low toxicity and has little cross-resistance with other clinically used anti-biotics and it remains a unique and promising agent due to the significant potencies against Staphylococci. Synthesis of triterpene derivatives is a strategy to obtain compounds with enhanced bioactivity by the introduction of electron-withdrawing/donating groups.To improve anti-tumor activity, some synthetic triterpenoid derivatives cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9 (11)-dien-28-oic (CDDO), its methyl ester (CDDO-Me) and imidazolide (CDDO-Im) derivatives have been synthesized. Of these, CDDO, CDDO-Me and betulinic acid have shown promising anti-tumor activities and are presently under evaluation in phase I studies. The present review provides updates on wide range of most important biological activities of triterpenoids and their role in the resolution of diseases to examine the mechanism by which they are useful as ethnopharmacological medicines. In this review efforts have been taken to review the potential use of triterpenoids to be used in the pharmaceutical industry as potential drug leads. In addition previous and current information regarding, its natural and semisynthetic analogs, focussing on its biological activities will be discussed. Thus, the present review investigates the potential use of these triterpenes against human pathogens, including their mechanisms of action, via in vivo studies, and the future perspectives about the use of compounds for human or even animal health are also discussed.