Open Access Short communication

Phytochemical Properties and Effect of Temperature on Proximate and Mineral Composition of Curcuma longa Linn. Rhizomes Ethanolic Extract

Rita Maneju Sunday, Chioma Favour Onyeka, Mayowa Peter Afolayan, Jude Onwatogwu, Bisola Olamide Oshagbemi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/31642

Aims: To investigate the phytochemical property of fresh Curcuma longa rhizomes and the effect of temperature on proximate and mineral composition of dried C. longa rhizomes.

Study Design: Activity directed antioxidant and phenolic content investigation of C. longa rhizomes using in vitro methods.

Place and Duration of the Study: Medicinal Plants Section, Bioresources Development Centre, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between August and October, 2016.

Methodology: Fresh C. longa rhizomes was washed and divided into five portions (A-E). Portion A-D was dried (at room temperature, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C respectively) and used for proximate and mineral composition investigation while portion E (fresh C. longa rhizomes) was used for screening the phytochemical composition of the rhizomes.

Results: The result of this study showed the presence of alkaloids, tannin, saponin, phenol, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannin, flavonoids, anthraquinones, steroids, terpenes and cardenolides in C. longa rhizome. Also there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in crude protein, crude fat and ash at 50°C and a significant (P<0.05) increase in crude fat and carbohydrate at 60°C when compared with room temperature and 40°C. Also, at 40°C there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in sodium, calcium and phosphorus when compared with room temperature, while at 50°C there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorous and iron when compared with room temperature and 40°C.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the use of C. longa rhizomes in ethno-medicine for the treatment/management of a lot of diseases may be due to the presence of some phytochemicals, nutrients and minerals found in the plant and also, the concentration of these nutrients may be affected by temperature. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Gases, Plasma Ammonia Levels and Urine Analysis; a Potential for Early Detection of Some Inborn Errors of Metabolism

Tahia H. Saleem, Mohammed H. Hassan, Ghaleb Oriquat, Amal A. S. Soliman, Aliaa A. Youssef, Wesam G. Ammari

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/31021

Aims: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) constitute a group of inherited disorders that cause significant morbidity and mortality. This diverse group of diseases present with different clinical manifestations that make the diagnosis a real challenge. The current work aimed to investigate the potential of some preliminary laboratory tests such as blood gases, plasma ammonia levels and urine analysis as rapid and conventional biochemical markers for early diagnosis of young children with high suspicion of metabolic disorders.

Methodology: The present study has been conducted on 50 patients suspected to have metabolic disorder according to the inclusion criteria selected from pediatric patients attending the pediatric, metabolic and neurological consultant clinics at the Pediatrics Department, Assiut university hospital, Egypt. In addition, to 20 healthy subjects were selected as the control group who had matched age and sex to the study group. All participants had their blood tested for complete blood count, gases, ammonia, electrolytes, urea, creatinine and glucose levels. Additionally, urine was tested for ketonuria, cysteinuria and fructosuria. Computed topography (CT) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies were also performed.

Results: There was a significant higher percent of consanguineous marriage among the patients’ parents compared with the control group. Plasma ionized calcium, pO2 and ammonia levels were significantly higher (p ˂0.05), whilst, pCO2, pH and HCO3 were lower (p ˂0.05) in patients versus the control group. One case had ketonuria and hyperglycemia but died before completing the investigatory workup. CT brain revealed that 60% of the included pediatric patients had brain atrophic changes. The final diagnoses of patients suspected to have metabolic disorders were: 11 (22%) had septicemia; 21 (42%) died before complete the final diagnosis; 12 (24%) suspected to have urea cycle defect and 6 (12%) suspected to have organic acidemia.

Conclusions: Blood gases, plasma ammonia levels and urine analysis are collectively simple and rapid laboratory tests that can give a preliminary indication for further investigations in pediatric patients with suspicious symptoms of metabolic disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Mineral and Phytochemical Contents of Some Leafy Vegetables Native to Igala Kingdom Kogi State Nigeria

Opega Justina Ladi, Orishagbebmi Cornelius Ojo, Yusufu Peter Awodi, Ishaka Nurudeen Alfa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/30011

The proximate composition, minerals and phytochemical contents of some leafy vegetables native to Igala land were determined. It was designed to establish the nutritional value and inclusion in food composition table for use by nutritionists and dieticians. Fresh vegetable samples (cocoyam, eggplant leaf, sweet potato leaf, fluted pumpkins, camwood, spinach, drum stick, jute mallow, basil plant leaf and bitter leaf) were obtained from gardens and vegetable shops of Igalas at Anyigba. They were washed and dried and standard methods were used for the analysis. Triplicate values were obtained in each case and expressed on dry weight basis. All data obtained were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 17.0 package. Means and standard deviation were calculated at significant level of p ≤ 0.001. Among the vegetable samples, crude fibre contents ranged from (26.7 to 8.0%), Ash (15.2 to 5.1%), moisture (5.3 to 1.52±0.02%), fat 4.1 to 1.3%, protein (25.1 to 9.2%) and carbohydrates, (67.2 to 8.04%). Phytochemical contents (mg/100 g) included Phenolic acid (312.6 to 10.1) flavonoid was (420.7 to 2.6) alkaloid (9.7 to 2.6), oxalate (0.9 to 0.003). Tannin (36.20 to 0.03), Saponin was (5.20 to 0.0), Phytates (2.02 to 0.06) and Cyanides was (0.5 to 0.05). Mineral contents mg / 2 g included: sodium (0.08 to 0.001), potassium content included (0.3 to 0.002), calcium (0.06 to 0.02), magnesium (0.06 to 0.00) and phosphorus was (0.06 to 0.02). Drumstick contained the highest crude fibre, protein, potassium, magnesium and phytate contents while ash contents were higher in fluted pumpkins. All the leafy vegetables considered, phytochemical contents were within an allowable level for safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Antioxidant System and Anaerobic Metabolism in Seedlings of Contrasting Maize Genotypes under Short Term Waterlogging

Vishal Chugh, Narinder Kaur, Anil K. Gupta

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/32087

Aim: The aim of the study was to understand the biochemical mechanism of tolerance against waterlogging stress in two contrasting maize genotypes viz. Parkash (waterlogging tolerant) and Paras (waterlogging sensitive).

Methodology: Both the genotypes were subjected to short term waterlogging stress treatment (18 h) after fifteen days of germination. Two major biochemical defense systems under hypoxia conditions, namely antioxidant and anaerobic metabolism, were compared in leaf and root tissues of tolerant and sensitive maize genotypes.

Results: Both the genotypes efficiently mitigate the oxidative stress generated due to waterlogging, as shown by increased activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase), POX (peroxidase), CAT (catalase) and APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and constant level of H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and MDA (malondialdehyde) in plant tissues. ADH activity was also significantly enhanced in the roots of both the genotypes but ALDH activity was significantly induced in tolerant genotype only, whereas activity remained unchanged in sensitive genotype.

Conclusion: The present results suggest that under sudden short term waterlogging shocks, plant survival depends upon the simultaneous activation of ADH and ALDH activity for continuous energy supply and removal of toxic end products of anaerobic respiration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pineapple Juice Ameliorates the High Fat Diet-induced Alterations in Cardiac Gene Expression Pattern in Male Rats

Mohamed Mohamed Ahmed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/32056

Background: Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. It results from energy imbalance where energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. It’s associated with a variety of diseases including cardiovascular dysfunctions.

Aims: The current study aimed to evaluate the potential role of pineapple juice to ameliorate the high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and its associated cardiovascular dysfunction.

Study Design:  Animals were divided into 2 groups: a control (n=6) group fed a regular diet and tap water, and HFD-fed (n=12) group that was fed HFD and tap water ad libitum for 10 weeks. After induction of obesity, HFD-fed group was subdivided into 2 groups each of six animals: Obese, non-treated group; gained free access to normal drinking water and HFD; pineapple group, given HFD and pineapple juice (15% in drinking water, vol /vol).  The treatment was continued for 5 weeks. Animals’ body weight was recorded weekly throughout the experimental period.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, Taif University, between May 2016 and September 2016.

Methodology: At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed, serum was prepared and assayed for triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and cardiac tissues were collected for analysis of the possible alterations in cardiac gene expression pattern in HFD-induced obese male wistar rat using RT-PCR.

Results: Pineapple juice treatment significantly (P =0.05) reduced HFD-induced increases in body weight,serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol. It also inhibited the obesity-induced upregulation of ET-1(Endothelin-1), TNF-α, NFκβ, AT1 receptor (Angiotensin II receptor type 1), iNOS and ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) mRNA expression (P =0.05), while it reversed the obesity-induced decrease of eNOS mRNA expression and NO production (P =0.05). Thus, pineapple juice can ameliorate the obesity-induced alterations of cardiac gene pattern at transcriptional level.

Conclusion: Pineapple juice might be a candidate therapeutic approach for treating HFD-induced obesity and its associated cardiovascular dysfunctions.