Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nephroprotective Activity of Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extracts of Trema guineensis Leaves (Ulmaceae) against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Droucoula Guillaume Cyril, Kouakou Sylvain Landry, Kouakou Yeboue Koffi François, Bamba Abou, Yapi Houphouët Felix, Okpekon Aboua Timothée

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/30539

Aims: The present study investigated the potential nephroprotective activity of aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Trema guineensis leaves (Ulmaceae) and determined the most active extract in rat.

Study Design: Trema guineensis leaves were collected from Abobo in the district of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). The plant was identified and authenticated by the Department of Botany, Felix Houphouet Boigny University of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire).

Place and Duration of Study: Analysis of the plant samples was done in pharmacodynamics Biochemistry Laboratory, Felix Houphouet Boigny University, the Laboratory of Organic Chemistry and Natural Substances, Felix Houphouet Boigny University and the Laboratory of Pharmacology, clinical and therapeutic pharmacy, UFR Pharmaceutical and Biologic Sciences, Felix Houphouet Boigny University between September and October 2016.

Methodology: The extracts obtained starting from 100 g of plant powder on the one hand by decoction in 1 Liter of distilled water and on the other hand by maceration in 1 Liter of ethanol-water mixture 70% (70:30, v/v). The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were studied in comparison with vitamin E (250 mg/kg body weight) against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity (80 mg/kg/day). In assessing nephroprotective effect, rats were pretreated by oral gavage daily with vitamin E and extracts at different doses (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) one hour before gentamicin intraperitoneal injection for seven days.

Results: The administration of gentamicin through intraperitoneal route to rats for seven days, resulted in an increase in urea and creatinine concentrations as well as decrease of total protein concentration in the serum. The values of total protein and albumin concentrations increased in urine after administration of gentamicin. Trema guineensis aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts used to treat animals suffering from nephrotoxicity would have significantly reduced (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) biochemical parameters considered as markers of nephrotoxicity. Moreover, the aqueous extract (200 mg/kg body weight) and vitamin E restored the toxic effect of gentamicin into equal significance.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the aqueous extract possesses a nephroprotective activity against gentamicin-induced kidney damage in rats. So aqueous extract can be utilized for preventives purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Different Dietary Components on Gene Expression of Leptin and Adiponectin in Adipose Tissue of Obese Rats

Mona A. Sadek, Samah F. Darwish, Amira Abd El-Rhman, Huda M. Ismail Abo El-Fadl

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/30489

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of different dietary components on gene expression of leptin and adiponectin to understand how nutritional molecules affect gene response and some metabolic pathways in diet-induced obesity in rats.

Methodology: Obesity was induced in adult male Spargue-Dawley rats using high fat- high sucrose diet for 7.5 weeks. The animals were divided into 5 groups; 2 groups served as control groups and the other 3 groups treated with the high fiber and/or high antioxidant vitamins (A & E) diets. The study involved measurement of leptin and adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue using PCR technique. In addition, measurement of energy intake, Lee index, serum adipokines (adipocytokines) and some oxidative stress markers.

Results: The results indicated that dietary induction of obesity resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase in body weight and Lee index compared with normal rats. Obesity caused significant (P<0.05) elevation in leptin mRNA level by 57.3% and reduction in adiponectin mRNA level by 35.1% in adipose tissue compared with normal group. However, treatment of obese rats with high fiber and antioxidant vitamins (A & E) diet caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in adipose tissue gene expression of leptin by 27.86% with increased adiponectin mRNA level by 41.84%. A significant (P<0.05) reduction was found in body weight and Lee index by 22.5% and 7.95% respectively compared with control obese rats. Also serum anti-inflammatory cytokines omentin and vaspin as well as antioxidants were increased, with reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as malondialdehyde and nitric oxide significantly (P<0.05) as compared with their levels in obese rats before treatment.

Conclusion: Dietary modification through reducing caloric intake and/or increasing antioxidant vitamins (A & E) may have some effect on the adipose tissue mRNA levels of leptin and adiponectin as well as adipocytokine serum levels related to obesity condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Space-time and Entropic Characterization of Aspergillus oryzea α-amylase Catalyzed Reaction

Ikechukwu Iloh Udema

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/31203

Aims: The aims of this investigation were to determine: 1) the distribution of time and time-dependent events in a catalytic cycle, 2) maximum and minimum (average) interparticle distance between interacting molecules, 3) quantify the entropic term, and 4) elucidate the implication of entropic “barrier”.

Methodology: The study design is theoretical and experimental. The place of research was Research Division of Ude International Concepts Limited (RC 862217), B.B. Agbor and Owa Alizomor Sec. Sch. Owa Alizomor, Delta State, Nigeria. The research spanned a period of ~ 1.5 years with stoppages between 20-07-2015 and 02-12-2016. Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was used. Data generated from assay of enzyme and calculated data were fitted to the models to determine the desired parameters.

Results: The catalytic orientation time ranging from 4.78-43.78 ms corresponds to value of [S] ranging from 22.04 g/l-3 g/l. Average time for the formation of product per molecule of enzyme, 1/á k2 ñ = 2.58 ms. Translational entropy, TE = 28.95±0.03 J/mol.K. The entropy of dilution, DS¥dil, at infinite dilution = 64.75±1.51 J/mol.K. TE (TE¥) when tc = 0, is = 6.27±1.13 kJ/mol.K. The minimum interparticle distance at maximum concentration of substrate, lm = 5.3142±0.06 exp (-8) m.

Conclusion: Different aspects of catalytic action include transit before effective collision, catalytic orientation, catalytic transformation of product and product release. Each aspect has its duration. The time (tc) spent in catalytic transformation of substrate and release of product is < the time (reciprocal of rate constant, 1/k2) taken to yield a product by a molecule of an enzyme. (1/á k2 ñ) - á tc ñ = catalytic orientation time. Period of transit is « period within the active site. TE, unlike entropic “barrier” due to the state of dilution, promotes catalytic function. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Enzyme Replacement Therapy on Disease Burden Biomarkers in Gaucher's Disease

Mohammed H. Hassan, Ayat A. Sayed, Ahmed El-Abd Ahmed, Tahia H. Saleem, Khalid I. Elsayh, Norhan B. B. Mohammed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/30768

Aims: We evaluate the effect of enzyme replacement therapy "ERT" on the plasma levels of some biochemical markers of the disease burden, in pediatric patients with Gaucher's disease "GD", in the form of plasma chitotriosidase "ChT", total acid phosphatase activity, ferritin and globulin to evaluate the therapeutic monitoring efficacy of such biomarkers. 

Methodology: A cross sectional case control study, carried out on 26 GD pediatric patients, divided into group A (13): On ERT and group B (13): Not receiving ERT, and in addition to 20 healthy age and sex matched controls. ELISA assays of plasma ChT and ferritin, colorimetric assays of plasma total acid phosphatase activity and globulin, were done for all groups, while, plasma proteins electrophoresis was done for GD patients only.

Results: Significant higher plasma levels of ChT, total acid phosphatase activity, ferritin and globulin among GD not receiving ERT versus both GD on ERT and Control group. Positive correlation between plasma ferritin and total acid phosphatase activity (r = 0.465 and P-value <0.05).

Conclusions: Plasma ChT, total acid phosphatase activity; ferritin and globulin are collectively helpful in evaluation and follow up the effect of ERT.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Novel Approach to Detect Cellular Signals of Oxidative Stress Due to Extreme Environmental Temperatures in Backyard Broiler from Arid Tracts in India

Satyendra Budania, Ashish Joshi, Sunita Pareek, Bhagat Singh Saini, Mamta Saini, Nalini Kataria, Anil Kumar Kataria, Saurabh Singh Singhal

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/30202

The present investigation was aimed to investigate use of novel methods to detect cellular signals of oxidative stress due to extreme environmental temperature periods (ETPs) in broilers from arid tracts in India. ETPs i.e. moderate, extreme hot and extreme cold were used to sample the birds. Broilers were maintained under natural environment in backyard poultry farms. Non invasive tools determined in the study were serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. Moderate mean overall values were 60.00±2.11 U L-1 and 156.00±253 U L-1, respectively. The mean values of serum GGT and MAO during extreme hot ETP and extreme cold ETP were significantly (p≤0.05) higher than the respective mean moderate overall value. Maximum percent change in mean value was observed during extreme hot ETP than in extreme cold ETP. It was 214.10% increase for serum MAO. The mean overall value during extreme hot ETP was significantly (p≤0.05) higher as compared to respective extreme cold ETP mean overall value. Age effect showed a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the mean values of both the markers being highest in the broilers of 8 weeks of age. Results of present study suggested that the degree of development of oxidative stress was higher during extreme hot ETP in comparison to extreme cold ETP. The results demonstrated that higher activity levels of enzymes may contribute to better tolerance to environmental temperature by increasing the protection capacity against oxidative damage. On the basis of pattern of observations obtained in the present study it can be recommended that broilers must be supplemented with proper antioxidants to protect them from ill effects of adverse environmental temperatures and oxidative stress. Upshot of the endeavor evidently specified the use of GGT and MAO as novel non invasive approach to detect cellular signals of oxidative stress due to extreme environmental temperature periods in broilers.