Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Its Effects on Some Haematological Parameters and Histopathology of Liver and Brain in Male Rats

Okere O. Shekins, Ejike Uju Dorathy, Mubarak Liman Labaran, Paul Joel

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29645

This study investigated phytochemical constituents of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco leaves), its effects on haematological parameters and its histopathology of brain and liver in albino rats. Eighteen (18) male albino rats were divided into three (3) groups with 6 rats in each group. Group A was administered 10 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extracts of tobacco, group B was administered 10 mg/kg body weight of methanol extracts of tobacco and group C was used as positive control. Two (2) rats from each group were sacrificed after every 7 days of administration for 21 days. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in rats’ body weight, red blood cell (RBC), hematocrite (HCT or PCV), and haemoglobin (HGB) for aqueous extracts (7.45 ± 0.93, 14.90 ± 1.89, 44.70 ±5.60 RBC, HCT and HGB respectively). Methanolic extracts of tobacco significantly decreased the value of RBC, HCT, and HGB (6.63 ± 1.04, 13.27 ± 2.07 and 39.8 ± 6.27 respectively) when compared with the control group (7.72 ± 0.57, 15.43 ± 1.14 and 46.30 ± 3.43 respectivel) but no significant (p>0.05) increase in mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) for both extracts. The histopathological section of brain and liver were normal for the control group while neuronal, liver degeneration, acute necrosis and cirrhosis were observed in aqueous and methanolic extract groups. Tobacco has nutritional and medicinal potentials as seen from the phytochemical constituent results but long-time consumption of tobacco may lead to anaemia as a result of its high alkaloids or nicotinic contents which decreased the values of RBC, HCT, and HGB. The overall effect of methanolic extract of tobacco was greater than the aqueous extract suggesting that methanol is a better solvent for extraction of tobacco leaves than water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Linking the Role of Biomarkers Network in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Cardiovascular Risk Development

Nema Ali Solimn, Doaa Hussein Zineldeen, Noha Said Esheba

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29575

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major problem. This study was undertaken to highlight the role of biomarkers network in cardiovascular diabetic complications.

Methods: 45 sex and age-matched subjects were included; 15 healthy controls, 15 T2DM patients without history of CVD and 15 T2DM patients with CVD. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fetuin A, interleukin-4 (IL-4), nitric oxide (NO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) were analyzed.

Results: Upregulated expression of GDF-15 and increased levels of PAI-1, IL-4 and AOPPs were observed in T2DM patients when compared with normal control group with higher values were detected in T2DM patients with CVD. Meanwhile, fetuin A and NO levels were statistically lowered among diabetic patients.

Conclusions: PAI-1, IL-4, fetuin A, GDF-15, NO and AOPPs play potential roles in the development of CV complications in diabetic subjects; which may represent promising prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Anisomeles indica

Muhammad Maqbool, Muhammad Umar, Muhammad Asif Iqbal, Muhammad Ajaib, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Shahnaz Perveen, Shazia Shah, Uzma Salar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29720

The present research carried out to estimate the antioxidant activity of Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze leaves by employing some in vitro methods i.e. free radical scavenging activity, reducing ability and chelating ability. The leaves extract showed an excellent activity in all three mechanisms. TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) values of A. indica range from 11.17 ± 0.239 to 0.75 ± 0.658 mMol. While the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) value and % age bound value ranges from 118.4 ± 0.495 to 14.44 ± 0.339 mM and 72.91 ± 0.770 to 56.61 ± 0.843 % respectively. The major phyto-constituents i.e. total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranges from 1145.5 ± 0.593 to 198.5 ± 0.395 mg/L of GAE and 3123.7 ± 0.395 to 1154.5 ± 0.376 mg/L of Quercetin equivalent. The results divulge that leaves of A. indica are potential source of natural antioxidants showing metal chelating, reducing and free radical scavenging abilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients for Micro-albuminuria and Its Relationship with Diabetic Retinopathy

Pawan Kumar Kare, Neerja Aggrawal, Parul Varshney, Rishila Ghosh, Om Prakash Kalra, Basu Dev Banerjee, Sri Venkata Madhu, Vinod Kumar Arora, Ashok Kumar Tripathi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29409

Aims: The aim of present study was to find out the prevalence of micro-albuminuria and its relationship with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, India, between September 2013 and August 2015.

Methodology: Total 387 clinically diagnosed T2DM patients with age range 30-65 years were enrolled for the study. Morning spot urine samples were collected for analysis of urinary albumin and creatinine on two separate occasions. Serum and urine creatinine were carried out by alkaline picrate Jaffee´s kinetic method. Urine albumin was estimated by turbidometric method by using nephelometer (Nephstar®, Goldsite Diagnostics Inc., USA). On the basis of albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), patients were classified as normo-albuminuric (albumin/creatinine ratio <30 mg/g creatinine); micro-albuminuric (albumin/creatinine ratio 30-299 mg/g creatinine) and macro-albuminuric (albumin/creatinine ratio ≥300 mg/g creatinine). Patients underwent ophthalmologic examination including fundoscopy for the detection of diabetic retinopathy. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. The plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum sodium, serum potassium, total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol etc. investigations were carried out in each patient.

Results: Out of total 387 T2DM patients screened, 159 (41%) were normo-albuminuric, 162 (41.8%) were micro-albuminuric and 66 (17%) were macro-albuminuric. The overall prevalence of micro-albuminuria was 41.8%. The prevalence of micro-albuminuria was 51.2% among males and 48.8% among females. The percentage of patients having micro-albuminuria was found to be increased with increasing duration of diabetes. Micro-albuminuria showed significant correlation with duration of diabetes (p<0.001), serum creatinine (p<0.001), HbA1c (p<0.01) and with eGFR (p<0.001). The overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in T2DM patients in our study was 29.7% and when the patients were classified according to their albuminuria the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was found to be 13.8% in normo-albuminuric group, 33.9% in micro-albuminuric group and 57.5% in macro-albuminuric group.

Conclusions: The present study suggests that the onset of micro-albuminuria in T2DM patients is associated with increasing duration of diabetes, poor glycemic control and presence of diabetic retinopathy. Presence of micro-albuminuria in T2DM patients having <5 years of duration of diabetes suggest screening of micro-albuminuria would be beneficial for early detection of DN.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Possible Effect of Obesity on Vitamin D Level among a Sample of Adult Men in the Western Region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ayman Zaky Elsamanoudy, Mohammed Hassanien, Maher Mohamed Khayyat, Mohammed- Saleh Mohamed Ardawi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/30221

Aim of the Study: This cross sectional study was aimed to investigate the effect of obesity on vitamin D levels in adult male in the western region of Saudi Arabia.

Study Design and Methods: One hundred twenty two Healthy men, aged 20–45 years are included in this study. They were divided into normal (n=48), overweight (n=26) and obese (n=48), according to their body mass index (BMI). Serum 25[OH]D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium were measured in different BMI groups. We also measured total body fat percentage (TBF%) and bone mineral density (BMD) in Spine (L1–L4), Femur Neck and Total Body, by DXA technique.

Results: Of the total participants, 94.9% had vitamin D deficiency with a mean 27.6±10.78 nmol/L (normal level; 75-250 nmol/L). The mean serum levels for 25(OH)D for the normal, overweight and obese groups were 28.7±12.16 nmol/L, 27.0±8.71 nmol/L and 27.0±10.43 nmol/L, respectively. Of the total participants, 89.4% had an above-average TBF%, and it was negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D. Serum calcium was significantly lower in the obese group compared with the normal BMI group (P<0.001). Serum PTH was significantly higher in the obese group compared with the normal BMI group (P<0.023). The BMI was significantly positively correlated with the different BMD measurements. Of our participants, 62% were physically inactive and only 14% were exposed to sunlight.

Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabian men is high, regardless of differences in BMI. Elevations in TBF% in different BMI categories play an important role in elevated vitamin D deficiency rates. A sedentary lifestyle and elevated adiposity contribute to an elevation in the vitamin D deficiency rate.