Open Access Original Research Article

Immunohistochemical Expression of 40S Ribosomal Protein SA and Fibronectin-1 in Breast Cancer Tissues from Sudanese Patients

Nuha Mohammed Hassan, Nada Salih Salih Osman, Ahmed Ibrahim Shomo, Mohammed Elimam Ahamed Mohammed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29484

Laminin-1 receptor (40S ribosomal protein SA) and fibronectin-1 belong to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins which are involved in cell adhesion, migration and growth. This study was implemented for the purpose of investigating the expression of 40S ribosomal protein SA and fibronoectin-1 in breast cancer tissues from Sudanese patients. One hundred and eight cancerous breast tissues and 42 normal breast tissues were involved in this study from the Histopathology laboratory of the Radiotherapy and Isotopes Center in Khartoum (RICK). The expression of 40S ribosomal protein SA and fibronectin-1 was investigated using the immunohistochemistry (IHC) Technique. The 40S ribosomal protein SA was positively expressed in 101 cancerous tissues (93.5%) compared to 15 normal breast tissues (35.7%). The fibronectin-1 staining was positive in 92 cancerous tissues (85.2%) compared to 14 normal breast tissues (33.3%). The expression of the laminin-1 receptor and fibronectin-1 together was positive in 88 cancerous tissues (81.5%) and the two were negative in 3 cancerous tissues (2.8%). The 40S ribosomal protein SA and fibronectin-1 together were positive in 6 normal breast tissues (14.3%) compared to 18 negative normal tissues (42.9%). When the mean ranks of the 40S ribosomal protein SA and the fibronectin-1 in the cancerous tissues were compared to their mean ranks in the normal tissues using the Mann-Whitney test, their differences were significant (p ≤ 0.000). The collective expression of fibronectin-1and 40S ribosomal protein SA may be used as targets in trial for the treatment of breast cancer since their expression was positive in 81.5% of the cancerous tissues compared 14.3% of the normal tissues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrating In-silico and In-vitro Approaches to Screen the Antidiabetic Drug from Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.

Twinkle S. Bansode, Amit Gupta, Sushama Chaphalkar, B. K. Salalkar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29875

One of cardiovascular diseases, i.e. Diabetes is reported either through absence of insulin or resistance against insulin. Treatment for diabetic disease related to Type 1 and 2 which includes lots of expenditure every year in the form of capsules or preparing different types of formulation. Recently, more than 400 medicinal plants have been screened to fulfill the requirement of the potent antidiabetic drug. Isolation and purification of effective herbal medicine from these medicinal plants to cure diabetes disease are still challenging. In the present study, our group worked on different enzymes that played a crucial role in the carbohydrate metabolism. For these studies, number of secondary metabolites (19) and enzymes (5) were screened in silico for antidiabetic potential. The result of these studies which showed that alpha amylase formed best interaction with carpaine (an alkaloid) with the lesser binding energy -7.44 kcal/mol as compared with the standard drug Acarbose. Therefore, further in-vitro studies were included, the screening of alpha amylase inhibitory activity using different solvent extract. At the concentration of 1 mg/ml FGCE showed highest inhibitory activity i.e. 37.7%. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was also performed to confirm the number of phytochemicals present in different extract. Overall, these studies claimed that medicinal plant posses a potential antidiabetic activity, but still investigation is required to find out and purify the bioactive compound which can be served as a potent antidiabetic drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variation of Qualitative and Quantitative Composition of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) Fruits

Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Raimonda Brunevičiūtė, Kristina Gaivelytė, Jonas Viškelis, Pranas Viškelis, Darius Kviklys, Valdimaras Janulis

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28856

The aim of this study was to explore the peculiarities of the qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity variation in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit samples during their growth season. The highest total concentration of phenolic compounds (20.97±0.74 mg g-1) was detected during the initial period of the phenological fruit growth stage (31 days after full bloom - DAFB), and the lowest (1.61±0.05 mg g-1) – during the fruit maturation period (143 DAFB). Chlorogenic acid was the predominant compound in apple samples throughout the vegetation period – it comprised 24-32.12% of all identified and quantitatively evaluated phenolic compounds in apples. The highest concentration of chlorogenic acid (20.97±0.74 mg g-1) was detected at the beginning of the fruit development period. 

In total, 6 quercetin glycosides were detected in apple samples: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin, reynoutrin, avicularin and quercitrin. The highest total concentration of quercetin glycosides (2.75±0.08 mg g-1) was detected at the beginning of the fruit development period (31 DAFB), and the lowest (0.23±0.01 mg g-1) – during the fruit maturation period.

The antioxidant activity in apple sample extracts was analysed by applying 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) spectrophotometric assays. The strongest antiradical and reducing activity (TEDPPH reached 81.02 mmol g-1, and TEFRAP - 715.63 mmol g-1) was detected at the beginning of the fruit development period. The statistical correlation analysis showed a very strong positive correlation between the total amount of the identified phenolic compounds and the reducing activity of the apple extracts (Spearman’s correlation coefficient – R=0.927, p<0.01). There was also a strong positive correlation between the total amount of phenolic compounds and the antiradical activity of the apple extracts (R=0.770, p<0.01). Among individual compounds that have been identified and quantitatively evaluated via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the strongest correlation with antiradical and reducing activity was observed for quercetin glycosides - isoquercitrin (respectively, R=0.851 and 0.845, p<0.01) and hyperoside (R=0.770 and 0.891 p<0.01).

Open Access Review Article

Protein Aggregation: A Review

Ganesh V. Devkate, Sharwaree R. Hardikar, Rajendra N. Patil

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29829

Protein aggregation is arguably the most common and troubling manifestation of protein instability, encountered in almost all stage of protein drug development. Protein generally will tend to aggregate under variety of conditions. The extent of aggregation depends on many factors that can be classified as intrinsic (primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure) and extrinsic (environment in which protein present or processed). These protein aggregate may exhibit less desirable characteristics like reduce or no biological activity. Although a variety of method has been used to inhibit protein aggregation, it involved structural (internal) and environmental (external) modifications.

Open Access Review Article

Collagen: New Dimension in Cosmetic and Healthcare

Nur Azmira Binti Abd Samad, Archana Singh Sikarwar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/27271

Collagen is one of the natural biomaterials used in cosmetic preparation. It is the most abundant protein in mammals which is obtained from many sources such as bovine, porcine and human. Collagen based cosmetics are in demand now a days though safety issues related with allergies are still main concern of consumers. The collagen is used for different purposes in cosmetic and medical field such as dermal filler, skin substitute and facial products. Use of collagen in medical field is useful depending upon the patient’s requirement. It is useful in pathological conditions like in severely burn patients, patients with chronic wounds such as foot ulcers due to diabetes and venous leg ulcers etc however, use of collagen injection as anti-aging/anti-wrinkle biomaterial need to be further investigated in large population study to check the side effects in long term.