Open Access Original Research Article

Digestibility of Leaf Proteins of Gnetum spp Vegetables in Rats and Effects of Some Certain Antinutrients

Ndomou Mathieu, Mezajoug Kenfack Laurette Blandine, Gouado Inocent, Tchiégang Clergé, Ngogang Yonkeu Jeanne

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29130

Aims: Study digestibility of leaf proteins of Gnetum africanum and Gnetum buchholzianum and effects of some antinutritional factors on young male rats Wistar albinos.

Study Design: Nutritional enhancement of use of Gnetum spp leafy vegetables.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Limbe botanical Garden of Cameroon between November 2013 and February 2014.

Methodology: Proteins and antinutritional factors were determined using standard analytical methods. Standard diet AIN-93 was used as reference for preparation of experimental diets used for in vivo digestibility of these leafy vegetables. Rats were fed with diets containing the corresponding 5% (GA5P and GB5P for G. africanum and G. buchholzianum respectively) or 10% (GA10P and GB10P) of leaf proteins.

Results: Results showed that mean proteins contents was 16.70 mg/100g. Average contents of crude fibers, Neutral Detergent Fibers, Acid Detergent Fibers, crude phenolic compounds, tannins and phytates were respectively 36.17, 41.97, 37.80 g/100 g and 478.80, 244.94, 215.64 mg/100. Rats’ growth was more promoted by diets containing 5% proteins. Protein Efficiency Ratio and Net Protein Efficiency Ratio were low. Digestibility Coefficient, Biological Value and Net Protein Utilization were high for 5% proteins diets. Principal Component Analyses revealed that fibers and antinutrients reduced growth and nitrogen retention from diet containing 10% proteins.

Conclusion: Gnetum spp. leafy vegetables have high contents of fiber, phenolic compounds and phytates which contribute to reduction of digestibility of theirs proteins.

Open Access Original Research Article

DFT Calculations on Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum by Some Carbohydrates

Salim M. Khalil, Ghassab M. Al-Mazaideh, Nozha M. Ali

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29288

We have performed a DFT calculations on glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose and sucrose as corrosion inhibitors of aluminum with complete optimization of geometries using B3LYP/6-31 G level (d, p) to find a relation between the molecular structure and corrosion inhibition. Frontier orbitals and quantum parameters together with calculated thermodynamic function ∆G for adsorption of the inhibitors on aluminum are reported. Glucose and fructose are found to be the most efficient, followed by lactose and maltose. Sucrose shows poor inhibitive effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoconstituent Analyses of Selected Wild Edible Plants Constituting Diets of Pregnant Women in Buikwe District, Uganda

Alice Nabatanzi, John David Kabasa, Immaculate Nakalembe, David Owiny, Charles Mugisha, Steven Nyanzi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29595

Pregnancy is a very critical phase in a woman's life where she has to ensure that she eats the right food, in the right portions and with the necessary nutrient requirements for proper foetal development.

Aims: To determine the proximate, mineral and vitamin composition of five wild edible plants (WEPs) consumed by pregnant women in Buikwe district.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Natural Chemotherapeutic Research Institute (Ministry of Health, Uganda) and Department of Chemistry, Uganda Industrial Research Institute (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Cooperatives, Uganda), between March 2016 and August 2016.

Methodology: Solanum nigrum L. (leaves), Solanum anguivi Lam. (fruits), Aframomum angustifolium (Sonn.) K. schum. (fruits), Physalis angulata L. (fruits) and Cleome gynandra L. (leaves) were analysed. Proximate and vitamin analyses were carried out following standard procedures. Minerals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Total carbohydrate and energy were calculated as crude by difference and using Atwater factors respectively. Species were scored and each species’ contribution towards the pregnancy Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) calculated.

Results: S. nigrum had the highest potassium (3042.8±107.39), sodium (44.12±0.86), magnesium (176.71±15.57) and iron (61.37±2.20). P. angulata had the highest moisture (1.76±0.00), copper (3.12±0.77), vitamin A (1.86±0.18) and vitamin C (26.27±2.53).  C. gynandra had the highest crude ash (17.16 ±0.13), protein (35.13±0.04), phosphorous (3349.4±429.4) and calcium (1113.7±79.36). S. anguivi had the highest crude fibre (40.19±0.09). A. angustifolium had the highest crude fat (3.02±0.01), total carbohydrate (85.91±0.34), energy (410.10±411.59), zinc (55.76±3.87) and manganese (30.19±0.14). There was a significant difference (P>.05) in the protein, fibre, potassium, sodium and vitamin A content of all the species. S. nigrum and P. angulata had the highest mineral (81.67%) and vitamin (105.38%) scores respectively. All values are mg per 100 g of dry sample.

Conclusion: Results justify the nutritional significance of the analysed species thus their ability to meet pregnancy nutrient requirements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Activities of Erythrococca anomala Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Leaves in Rat

Miezan Bile Aka Patrice, Yapi Houphouet Felix, Opkekon Timothée, Kouakou– Siransy Giselle, Kouakou Yeboue Koffi François

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28385

Aims: This study was therefore aimed to evaluate potential anti-inflammatory activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic extracts of Erythrococca anomala leaves (Euphorbiaceae) and to determine the most active extract in rat.

Study Design: Erythrococca anomala leaves were collected from Yakasse-Me area in the Department of Adzopé (Côte d’Ivoire). The plant was identified and authenticated by the Botanic Laboratory, University Felix Houphouet Boigny, Cocody (Côte d’Ivoire).

Place and Duration of Study: Analysis on the plant samples was done in pharmacodynamic Biochemistry Laboratory, University Felix Houphouet Boigny, the Laboratory of Organic Chemistry and Natural Substances, University Felix Houphouet Boigny and the Laboratory of Pharmacology, University Felix Houphouet Boigny between April and May 2016.

Methodology: The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema and CRP (C-reactive protein) concentration in rat. These extracts were administrated intraperitonealy at different doses (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) to rats.

Results: Both extracts with 200 mg/kg.b.w. showed a good anti-inflammatory activity compared to Diclofenac (25 mg/kg). This study also showed an increased CRP concentration (p<0.05). However, the inflammation inhibition is raised more than 26.25% with the aqueous extract compared to ethanolic extract.

Conclusion: This study showed that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Erythrococca anomala leaves possess a potential anti-inflammatory properties. However, this anti-inflammatory activity is more raised with aqueous extract and seems to have the most active extract. So aqueous and ethanolic extracts can be utilized for therapeutic purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Inhibitory Potentials of Seed Kernel Methanol Crude Extract and Fractions of Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceace on Metalloprotease-induced Toxic Effect of Echis ocellatus Venom

P. N. Okoro, S. Ibrahim, M. Mohammed, O. O. Owolabi, E. A. Adegbe, O. O. Idowu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26369

The study was carried out to determine the effect of methanol extract of Mangifera indica seed kernel and its solvent fractions on metalloprotease induced toxic effect on mice. Total of twelve albino mice were used for different treatment group which were replicated in triplicates. This research was carried out in the laboratory of the department of pharmacognosy Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, August, 2015. Mangifera indica seed kernel methanol extract was partitioned using solvent with increasing polarity (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous). The most active ethyl acetate fraction was used to determine the in vivo anti venom metalloprotease induced toxic effect on blood coagulation system (bleeding and clotting time) and some haematological parameters (packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cell and total protein count) in mice. The results obtained from the in vivo studies showed a significant increase in the bleeding and clotting time of the mice treated with the venom alone when compared with that of the control. In the mice treated with venom and the extract, the increase in bleeding and clotting time was observed to be significantly (p=0.05) reduced. Also, the results obtained for haematological parameters showed a significant reduction, except for the WBC count which was slightly elevated in the mice treated with venom alone when compared to the control. Normalcy was significantly restored in the groups treated with the venom and the extract. This suggests that the extract has some inhibitory effect      in vivo against the action of Echis ocellatus venom. The relevance of these findings would be of importance in the management of snake bite envenomation and the development of anti venom.