Open Access Original Research Article

Oils of Nigella sativa L. and Cinnamon zeylanicum Inhibit the Testicular Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Induced by Mancozeb in Rats

Heba Barakat, Shimaa El-Masry

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28351

Mancozeb, a fungicide of ethylene bisdithiocarbamate is widely used in agriculture. It leads to disturbances in many cellular processes. This study is aimed at elucidating the possible protection effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum oil (CZO) in alleviating the toxicity of mancozeb on reproductive performance in adult male rats. Animals were orally administered with NSO (2 ml/kg/day) or CZO (100 mg/kg/day) either alone or with mancozeb (100 mg/kg/day) for 50 days. Results showed that groups administered each of the oils alone increased serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, antioxidant enzymes and integrity of cellular and genetic status of testes compared to control group. However, the co-administration of mancozeb with each of these oils modulated the testicular toxicity exerted in the toxicated group. The results showed alleviation in the integrity of the testicular cells and the %DNA in tail and tail length, the hormone measurements and the serum oxidative stress compared with the toxicated (non- treated( group. Our results indicated that NSO had higher protective effect than CZO against mancozeb-induced reproductive toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Daniella oliveri Extracts on Selected Clinical Microorganisms

Osuntokun Oludare Temitope, O. A. Fasusi, A. F. Ogunmodede, A. O. Thonda, B. O. Oladejo, A. M. Yusuf-Babatunde, O. O. Ige

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28764

Daniella oliveri (Caesalpiniacea) is a plant found in the Amazon region and other parts of South America and Africa. The tree may reach a height of 100 feet and trunk diameter of 4 feet. Daniella oliveri (Rolfe) Fabiaceae is commonly known as Ilorin balsam (eepo-iya) or Copaihu africana. It is an indigenous African tree, found extensively in Benin, Cameroon, Gambia and Nigeria. The basic objective of this project is to determine the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical composition of Daniella oliveri. The leaf and bark of the Daniella oliveri were obtained from a location in the south western part of Nigeria, in the tropical rainforest of Ikare Akoko, Ondo state and Ile Ife, Osun state, Nigeria. The plants were authenticated by a certified botanist at the herbarium unit of Department of Plant science and Biotechnology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The leaf and bark were prepared using ethanol. The antimicrobial assay was carried out on leaf and bark using Agar diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was measured. The test organisms used for this research work are Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus viridians, Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. All the extracts (leaf and bark) of the highest concentration (60 mg/ml) has the highest zone of inhibition while the lowest concentration (7.5 mg/ml) has the lowest zone of inhibition. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids and phenol, tannin, phylate, oxalate, saponin and steroid. The presences of these compounds were inferred as being responsible for the anti-microbial properties of the extracts. Mineral elements composition content present in the plant are sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), therefore, the use of medicinal plants should be studied in detail and encouraged for use worldwide to reduce the level of resistance of microorganisms to drugs and make drugs available for the populace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical and GC-MS Analysis of Calabash (Lagenaria siceraria) Seed Oil

Aliyu Ahmad Warra, Richard Undigweundeye Ukpanukpong, Ibrahim Garba Wawata

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29028

Aims: To show the potential of the hexane extract of the seed oil in cosmetics and perfumery.  

Study Design: Quality evaluation by physico-chemical analysis and determination of fatty acid composition through GC-MS qualitative analysis were carried out on hexane extract of calabash (Lagenaria vulgaris) seed oil.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, between April and Aug 2016.

Methodology: Dried seeds were crushed into powder using mortar and pestle and were stored in a plastic container before analysis. Seed oil was obtained by complete extraction using the Soxhlet extractor (GG-17, SHUNIU). The qualitative fatty acid analysis was done using Shimadzu QP2010 plus series gas chromatography coupled with Shimadzu QP2010 plus mass spectroscopy detector (GC-MS) system.

Results: The oil yield (%) was 29.33±0.01, the colour was   dark yellow. The following physico-chemical results were obtained; Acid value mgKOH / g of   0.47±0.01, Iodine value gI2/100 g of 23.03±0.07 and Saponification value mgKOH / g of 156±0.01. The GC-MS results revealed the following fatty acid composition; Palmitic acid, stearic acid, Eicosadenoic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, erucic acid, arachidic acid and behhenic acid respectively.

Conclusion: Quality characteristics through physico-chemical analysis and fatty acid profile qualitatively determined showed the potential of the hexane extract of the seed oil in cosmetics and perfumery.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Prolactin Level and Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease

D. Lakshmi, K. S. Meera, E. Mahesh

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29218

Back Ground and Objectives: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major prevalent disease worldwide associated with low grade systemic inflammation, which predisposes individuals to higher incidence of atherosclerotic complications. The pituitary hormone prolactin has recently been regarded as a local regulator of macrophage responses. Both prolactin clearance and production are altered in CKD. Emerging evidences suggests that prolactin participates in atherosclerotic processes in cases of peri /post partum cardiomyopathy and hypertension.  Given the elevated cardiovascular risk of CKD, this study is intended to estimate the levels of prolactin and tumor Necrosis Factor α, an inflammatory marker in CKD and to decipher if there is are significant interactions between these variables.

Methods: The study population included 45 CKD and 45 healthy controls of either gender. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) and Serum creatinine were measured in the fasting sample collected from both the groups. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) was calculated using MDRD formula. Serum prolactin levels and tumor necrosis factor α was estimated by ELISA method.

Results: The study found highly significant increase in serum TNF-α levels (8.64±4.97/2.06±1.34 pg/ml, p<0.001) and serum prolactin levels (61.65±28.9/11.76±8.55 ng/ml, p<0.001) in cases when compared to controls There was no correlation between eGFR and prolactin of cases in different stages of CKD. No correlation was found between prolactin and TNF in all the stages of CKD.

Interpretation and Conclusion: The increased prolactin levels acts independently in increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in cases of CKD superimposing on low grade inflammation.

Open Access Review Article

Phytochemistry and Ethnopharmacology of Ficus carica

Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Mariem Bensaid, Youssef Bakri, Nadia Dakka

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29029

Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) is a plant of great importance in the traditional Arab medicine thanks to its therapeutic properties. This work was carried out in order to contribute to the ethnopharmacological knowledge of this medicinal species. We describe phytochemical compounds and ethnopharmacological properties of F. carica, species that has been used in traditional medicine for many decades. Possible trends and perspectives for future research of this plant are discussed, as well. F. carica has been found to contain several chemical constituents, mostly polyphenols and flavonoids. With its bioactive compounds, F. carica possesses a wild range of biological activities. In traditional medicine, It was reported that F. carica was applied mainly as the remedy for ulcers, indigestion and diarrhea. Some published studies have shown a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, as well as anti-inflammatory activities. This paper reviews the main medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant in order to summarize its therapeutic potential and to shed light on gaps necessitating for prospected research works.