Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D and Hemodialysis on Vitamin D Axis in Sudanese Renal Failure Patients

Nayla Abdalla Shamseldin, Mohammed Elimam Ahamed Mohammed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28595

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hemodialysis on vitamin D axis through measuring the blood level of25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphate in renal failure patients before and after dialysis compared to their level in healthy subjects.

Materials and Methods: 16 Sudanese patients with renal failure under hemodialysis and vitamin D dose and 16 healthy subjects were involved in this study after informed consent.

Results: The mean of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in the control, pre dialysis and post dialysis were 0.75, 1.31, and 0.84 μmol/l sequentially. There was no significant difference between the control and post dialysis samples (p-value = 0.44) and there was significant difference between the means of the control and pre dialysis samples (p˂ 0.000) and between the pre dialysis and post dialysis samples (p˂ 0.000). The means of phosphate concentration in the three samples were 3.31, 6.26 and 3.19 mg/dl respectively. Regarding the results of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium; the means of the PTH in the control, pre dialysis and post dialysis samples were 18.08, 18.01 and 21.96 pg/ml. Concerning the means comparisons, there was no significant difference between all the means. The means of calcium of the three groups were 10.58, 9.96 and 10.14 mg/dl. However, there was no significant variation between the means.

Conclusion: 25-hydroxyvitamin D treatment caused significant increase in the blood concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and phosphate and an insignificant decrease in PTH and calcium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Toxicity of Methanol Extract of Cola nitida Treatment on Antioxidant Capacity, Hepatic and Renal Functions in Wistar Rats

Ejiofor U. Emmanuel, Shirley O. Ebhohon, Obike C. Adanma, Oriaku C. Edith, Ogbonnaya N. Florence, Ineama Chioma, Uroko I. Roberts, Omeh Y. Ndukaku

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28593

Aim: The study investigated the effect of methanol crude extract of Cola nitida on some liver function enzymes and antioxidant in wistar rats.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, in the year 2015.

Methodology: LD50 was carried out by administering 1000, 2000, 4000, 5000, 8000 and 10000 mg/kg of the Cola nitida extract to twenty-four animals of four animals per group. For biochemical analysis, fifteen animals were divided into three groups of five animals each, group A served as control group, group B and C received 300 and 500 mg/kg B.W of Cola nitida respectively.

Results: Result indicated an LD50 of 6320 mg/kg B.W. Catalase, revealed a significant (P =.05) decrease in test group (36.7±21.1) for 300 mg/kg and (29.46±18.8) for 500 mg/kg body weight when compared to the control group (59.7±4.3). Superoxide dismutase concentration was also significantly (P =.05) lower in the 500 mg/kg group (10.32 ± 4.90) when compared to the control group (24.94±2.39). GSH concentration was significantly (P =.05) lower in the 500 mg/kg group (21.1±1.91) when compared to the control group (23.3±1.28). Result for MDA significantly (P =.05) decreased in the control group (0.08±0.03) when compared to the 300 mg/kg group (0.11±0.00) and 500 mg/kg group (0.12±0.03). ALT and AST concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the 500 mg/kg group (43.60+20.47 and 30.60+20.99) when compared to the control group (23.40+3.36 and 11.20+5.84).

Conclusion: Result obtained from this study showed that administration of Cola nitida induced lipid peroxidation, and also some signs of hepatotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum MiR-377 and MiR-29a in Type II Diabetic Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

Azza Elamir, Tarek Ibrahim

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28039

Aim: The aim of our study is to evaluate the impact of serum miR-377 and miR-29a on the development and pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic patients.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt, from July 2015 to December 2015.

Methodology: The present study was conducted on 110 subjects: 30 controls, 40 diabetic subjects with microalbuminuria and 40 diabetic subjects with macroalbuminuria. Blood and urine samples were taken from 110 subjects; Urine samples were collected for measurement of urine albumin. Serum was separated for detection of: Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) by Elisa and miR-377 and miR-29a by qRT-PCR.

Results: There is significant increase in the mean values of serum miR-377 [P<0.001 & P<0.001] and significant decrease in the mean values of serum miR-29a [P<0.001 & P<0.001] in diabetic subjects with macroalbuminuria compared with diabetic subjects with microalbuminuria and healthy control subjects.

Conclusions: Serum MiR-377 is significantly increased and serum MiR-29a is significantly decreased in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Accordingly, these miRNAs have a strong potential to act as biomarkers to diagnose, treat and prognose diabetic nephropathy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Protein Thiols and Liver Glycogen Content on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Aqueous Extract of Bixa orellana Leaves

R. Vinutha Bhat, E. G. Padmanabha Udupa, U. Anushree, Samreen M. Sheik, B. Shivananda Nayak

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28222

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder causing hyperglycemia affecting the world wide population. In recent years most of the plant extracts with their potential antioxidant property are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study is to determine protein thiols and glycogen content to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Bixa orellana using diabetes induced rats. 

Methods: The leaves of B. orellana were obtained, cleaned and shade dried to make the extract. Wistar male rats weighing about 200-300 g were used and all the animals were provided with wheat gluten feed pellets and water. Diabetes was induced using Streptozotocin. The experimental group consisted 6 animals were treated with aqueous extract of 60 mg/kg body weight. The diabetic and normal control group animals were treated with 0.9% of saline.

Results: There was decrease in protein thiol in diabetic control group when compared to normal control and increase in liver glycogen in the diabetic control group. P value between the group’s normal control and diabetic control for protein thiols and glycogen was found to be 0.004 and 0.005 which were highly significant. When Normal group was compared with Test group there was statistical significance difference in which aqueous extract treated group had an increase in serum protein thiol (P<0.002) and a decrease in glycogen content (P <0.001). When Diabetic control group was compared with Test group there was  no statistical significance difference in  which aqueous extract treated group and had an increase in serum protein thiol  (P>0.05) and decrease in glycogen content (P >0.05).                                        

Conclusions: The study showed a significant increase in the protein thiol and decrease in liver glycogen in the test group of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extracts of B. orellana leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Haematological Profile in Patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome (ADS) Co-Morbid with Nicotine Dependence Syndrome (NDS)

J. B. Honnamurthy, A. R. Shivashankara, P. John Mathai, M. Malathi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/29038

Aims: To compare and assess the biochemical and haematological parameters in patients with Alcohol dependent syndrome (ADS) co-morbid with Nicotine dependent syndrome (NDS) in comparison to those with only Alcohol dependent syndrome (ADS).

Study Design: Observational case control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Department of Psychiatry, Vailankanni Deaddiction centre, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore.

Methodology: The subjects consisted of 30 male patients (age range 27-64 years) with Alcohol dependent syndrome co-morbid with Nicotine dependent syndrome (ADS+NDS), 30 male patients (age range 26-60 years) with Alcohol dependent syndrome (ADS) and 30 male normal healthy volunteers (age range 28-46 years). Activities of liver function marker enzymes and levels of haematological parameters were assayed by standard methods.

Results: Activities of alanine aminotransferases(ALT), aspartate aminotransferases(AST), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase(ƔGT) were significantly higher in patients with ADS+NDS and only ADS, in comparison to healthy controls (p< .001). The haemoglobin, RBC counts, polymorphonuclear cells were significantly decreased in only ADS group compared to controls (p< .01) and MCV and ESR were significantly increased in patients with ADS+NDS and only ADS (p<0.001). No significant difference was observed between patients with ADS+NDS and only ADS, with respect to biochemical and haematological parameters. There was significant correlation of ƔGT with ALT(r=0.72) and AST(r=0.88) in only ADS group and ALT with AST(r=0.79; r=0.83) in both ADS+NDS and ADS groups.

Conclusions: Significant changes were evident in biochemical and haematological parameters in patients with only Alcohol dependent syndrome. These parameters could serve as markers of alcoholism.