Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility of Drug-seeking and Taking Behaviors Increases through Dysregulation of Copper and Zinc and Impaired Prefrontal Function in Addiction Period in Male Rats

Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian, Masoud Afshari

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28542

Introduction: Drug addiction is a condition that in some occasions occurs with relapsing episodes. Reducing these relapsing episodes slows progression of recreational abuse with least adverse effects to everyday abuse with the most debilitating adverse effects.

Materials and Methods: In this study 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 to 250 gram were divided into 2 groups: Control and morphine-received. At the end of experiment sucrose consumption, salt appetite, novelty-seeking behavior, zinc in serum, copper in serum, glutathione in serum and prefrontal cortex stress-oxidative status for MDA (Malondialdehyde) were assessed.

Results: Sucrose and salt consumption were increased in morphine-receiving rats compared to control rats. Also, Novelty-seeking behavior was increased in morphine-receiving rats compared to control rats. Copper in serum was increased in morphine-receiving rats compared to control rats. Zinc in serum was increased in morphine-receiving rats compared to control rats. Oxidative-stress status as assessed for MDA in the prefrontal cortex was increased in morphine-receiving rats compared to control rats. Glutathione in serum was increased in morphine-received rats compared to control rats.

Conclusion: Involvement of prefrontal cortex in morphine-receiving period can be responsible for the occurrence of drug-seeking and taking behavior. In this sense, copper, zinc and antioxidant defense can play a pivotal role.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-residue Pesticides in Conventional and Organic Orange

Mohamed H. El-Saeid, Mohamed T. Selim, Saleh N. Al-Nadhari

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26439

A monitoring project for pesticide residues in orange samples in Al-Tamer vegetables market, Riyadh was conducted. A total of 144 samples of organic and non-organic orange were collected according to the Codex Alimentarius recommendations. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and subjected for clean-up using Florisil column. Clean extracts were analyzed using GC-MS against 86 pesticides of concern. Method performance parameters are reported. Organic orange samples of both countries contained non-detectable amounts of the tested pesticides. For the non- organic produce samples it contained varying amounts of pesticides depending on the season, country and month. Mostly, insecticides were dtected mostly in the samples then fungicides. Violating pesticides were also the anti-insect ones. Methomyl was the violating compound in South African orange and ethion in Egyptian one. Fungicides were below the corresponding MRL. Total amount of residues were the maximum in December 2010 (5.16 mg/kg) followed by November 2010 (4.27 mg/kg) of which ethion was the major constituent, this may be due to insect control practices. The highest level of residues appeared in the November 2011 with 1.68 mg/kg residues of Methomyl followed by august 2011 with 1.3m mg/kg consist of Methomyl and Chlorpyrifos-methyl.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Montey Naruka, S. M. R. Usha, B. M. Rupakala, P. Vijaya Lakshmi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28005

Aims: To evaluate Insulin resistance in patients with Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). To determine if HOMA & G:I can be used as a simple marker to identify PCOS patients at risk for IGT & Type II DM.

Study Design: This was a hospital based, cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Gynaecology & Obstetrics department, Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru. It was done over a period of 6 months from February 2015 to July 2015.

Methodology: The study was conducted with 85 women, 45 PCOS cases (USG diagnosed) and 40 controls (with regular menstrual cycle) in the age group of 20-40 years. Insulin resistance indices namely, Fasting Insulin, Glucose insulin ratio (G:I) and Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were calculated from the values of Fasting blood sugar and fasting Insulin estimated by Chemiluminiscence immunoassay. Cases and control were further subdivided based on age as Group I (20-30 yrs) and Group II (31-40 yrs).

Results: Fasting blood sugar, Fasting insulin, G:I and HOMA were significantly higher (P = 0.0137, 0.0018, 0.0475 and 0.0047 respectively) in cases than in controls. There was no significant difference between cases and control with respect to age, BMI and waist circumference (P = 0.7342, 0.3538 and 0.4841 respectively). When the cases were subdivided, BMI was significantly high (P 0.0001) in Group II as compared to Group I. IR markers like Fasting insulin and HOMA were higher in Group I compared to Group II but not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Fasting Insulin, HOMA & G:I can be used as simple, practical and effective marker to identify PCOS patients who are at risk of Type II DM. The data suggests that patients having Fasting Insulin > 20 IU, HOMA >2.5 & G:I < 4.5 should be closely monitored & considered as high risk for Type II DM.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Aqueous Fraction of Ethanolic Extract of Balanites aegyptiaca Stem-bark on Glucose Metabolic Enzymes in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

D. H. Mhya, K. M. Anigo, I. A. Umar, J. O. Alegbejo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/27598

Aims: The study examines effect of aqueous-fraction of ethanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca Stem-bark on enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats in a bid to understand its antihyperglycemic mechanism of action.

Methodology: Diabetes was induced in male rats by intra-peritoneal injection of 60 mg/kg body weight of STZ. Balanites aegyptiaca stem-bark was extracted using ethanol followed by solvent-solvent fractionation with ethyl acetate and water. The aqueous fraction obtained was subjected to acute toxicity on wistar rats using a gradient dosage, 1/10th of lethal dose was calculated and used for the study. It was orally administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt to diabetic rats, metformin (200 mg/kg body wt) serve as reference drug and diabetic/normal controls received 10% dimethyl sulfurdioxide (DMSO) for the 28 days treatment period. On day 29th, rats were sacrificed; blood and liver samples were collected. Liver tissues were homogenized, centrifuged and the supernatants were used for assay of glucose metabolic enzymes while serum was used for biochemical markers estimations.

Results: Results obtained showed no death or lethal effect in the acute toxicity study up to a dose of 4000 mg/kg bwt therefore, the LD50 value was considered to be more than 4000 mg/kg body wt. When the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous-fraction of the stem-bark ethanolic extract a significant (P≤0.05) regulation in glucose metabolic enzymes were noticed; glucokinase activity increased (3.04±0.004 U/min/mg protein) against diabetic control (2.22±0.016 U/min/mg protein) as well as glycogen synthase (0.13±0.001 U/min/mg protein) against diabetic control (0.09±0.003 U/min/mg protein). Glucose-6-phosphatase activity decreased (0.26±0.028 U/min/mg protein) against untreated diabetes (1.44±0.0.054 U/min/mg protein). Glycogen content increased to 13.77±0.32 mg/g liver compared to diabetic control (10.69±0.32 mg/g liver). A significant effect on fasting blood glucose was observed; treated diabetes (290.4±18.4 mg/dL) compared to diabetic control (336.0±11.9 mg/dL).

Conclusion: These results indicated that Balanites aegyptiaca stem-bark contained compound(s) that regulates glucose metabolic enzymes to achieved its antihyperglycemic effect.

Open Access Review Article

Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus Using Glycated Hemoglobin (A1c): The Nigerian Perspective

Tunji Akande

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/27618

Background: Diabetes is an international public health issue. International Expert Committee recommended an alternative diagnostic index testing for diabetes using glycated (A1c).

Objective: This study aimed to determine whether A1c test should be used for diagnosing diabetes mellitus in Nigeria.

Methods: By assessing the strength of WHO recommendation and the feasibility and resources implication in Nigeria setting.

Results: The strength of the recommendation was rated as good by the quality of evidence but not applicable at population level due to high cost and scarce availability of A1c test.

Conclusion: The adoption of A1c test as a diagnostic test at present is problematic. Therefore plasma glucose measurements should still be adopted for the diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus while the A1c assay could be used for monitoring diabetes.