Open Access Short Research Article

Assessing the Impact of Rifampicin on Some Hepatic Parameters of Albino Wistar Rats

Gabriel D. Edem, Emmanuel B. Etuk, Kingsley A. Okon

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28379

This study was aimed at investigating and evaluating the toxicity of Rifampicin on the liver of albino rats. The hepatoxicity of Rifampicin was determined by measuring the hepatic enzymes such as alanine amino transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Liver toxicity was induced by oral administration of Rifampicin per body weight for twenty one (21) consecutive days. The animals were divided into four groups with each group having six (6) animals. Group I rats served as control and were treated with distilled water while Groups II, III and IV received 3 mg/kg, 9 mg/kg and 18 mg/kg of Rifampicin orally respectively. After anesthesia with chloroform, they were sacrificed and blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis of hepatic enzymes. The results showed that Rifampicin treated rats in Group II and III showed no marked increase in ALP and ALT levels. Rifampicin treated rats in group four (IV) showed a marked increase in the serum enzymes levels. The results of this study suggest that Rifampicin is hepatotoxic at high doses.

Open Access Short communication

Hypoglycemic Effects of Corn Steep Liquor Extracts in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Charles Ojo Olaiya, Kayode Olayele Karigidi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28178

Aims: The three plants presented in this study are Citrullus colocynthis, Gladiolus psittacinus and Circuligo pilosa. Their corn-steep fermenting liquor is traditionally used in preparing concoctions and decoctions for the treatment of various diseases. Our aim was to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the extracts of these plants prepared with corn-steep fermenting liquor in diabetic rats.

Methodology: Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into six groups of four rats each to receive different treatments for 15 days. The effects of extracts were monitored on body weight, blood sugar and heamatological indices.

Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of phenol, quinones, coumerin, saponins and flavonoids. Acute toxicity assay showed that Gladiolus psittacinus is toxic above 350 mg/kg but other extracts did not show any death up to the dose of 2900 mg/kg. The Corn steep liquor extracts were able to significantly (p > 0.05) reduce the elevated blood glucose level of diabetic rats. Also, body weight and heamatological indices in diabetic rats were improved by the administration of the extracts.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that corn steep fermenting liquor extracts can be used in the management of diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Total Methanolic Extract of Chrysophyllum perpulchrum on Lipemia and Blood Pressure in Rats Made Diabetic by Streptozotocin

Bidié Alain Dit Philippe, Tiekpa Wawa Justine, Bla Kouakou Brice, N’guessan Jean David, Allico Joseph Djaman

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26473

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total methanolic extract of Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (Sapotaceae) on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension to diabetic induced rats. This study was conducted at the biochemical pharmacodynamic laboratory of Felix Houphouet Boigny University (Côte d’Ivoire) during the period from August 2015 to February 2016.

Methodology: The plant extract was obtained from the bark of Chrysophyllum perpulchrum. These peels were harvested, dried, ground and extracted in methanol (96%). The phytochemical screening permits us to characterize the different components of our plant extract. Then, fifteen (15) rats were used to induce diabetes with streptozotocin (55 mg / kg bw) for seven (7) days. These ​​diabetics rats were then treated with two doses of Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (200 et 400 mg/kg bw) and Avandia (10 et 20 mg/kg bw) our reference molecule. To assess the effect of Chrysophyllum perpulchrum, we determined the levels of insulin, lipids and blood sugar levels throughout treatment.

Results: The results showed that phytochemical analysis of total methanolic extract of Chrysophyllum perpulchrum contains alkaloids, flavonoids and polyphenols. After 7 days of treatment with total methanolic extract of Chrysophyllum perpulchrum, blood sugar in diabetic rats significantly decreased (P <.001) from 1.93±.05 to 1.40±.00 for the dose to 200 and 1.93±.05 to 1.23±.02 g / L for the dose 400 mg/kg bw. Similarly total methanolic extract of Chrysophyllum perpulchrum normalized blood pressure, all of lipids, urea and creatinine previously increased in diabetic rats.

Conclusion: The treatment of diabetic rats with total methanolic extract of Chrysophyllum perpulchrum corrects these disruptions and improves resistance against diabetes. This action is related to its chemical composition characterized by the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids. Thus, this extract may play a preventive role in the development of diabetes especially through improvement of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Impacts of Radiation Processing on Grapes and Artichoke Agro Industrial Wastes

Dina M. Seoudi, Nahla S. Hassan, Manal A. Emam, Diaa El-Din H. Farag, Ashraf M. Mounir

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28493

Food irradiation is a method of preservation used to extend the shelf life of food products fresh and/or dried, destroy the contaminating harmful pathogens and modify the activity of bioactive compounds present in food materials.

Objective: The present study was conducted to test the possible biochemical impacts of radiation processing on wastes of grapes and artichoke, and to elucidate the physiological and biochemical effects of feeding growing male Wistar rats on diets supplemented with processed agro industrial wastes at dose levels of 10, 20 and 30 kGy.

Results: No significant differences were detected in the chemical composition of processed agro industrial wastes at all doses levels compared to non-irradiated one. Irradiation processing caused different changes in polyphenols and tannin contents as a function of radiation dose. Regarding the impact of irradiation treatment, up to 30 kGy on free radical scavenging activity of grape seeds-skin, and artichoke leaves, the results showed that there was a significant reduction in their ability to scavenge free radicals, while an exception was observed for artichoke leaves processed by 10 kGy. Changes in amino acids and fatty acids patterns were observed, as affected by irradiation (10- 30 kGy), without a specific trend in the two agro industrial wastes under investigation. The physiological and biochemical performance of growing male Wistar rats affected by feeding high fat diets supplemented with non-irradiated or irradiated agro industrial wastes under investigation for 8 weeks, showed better results when compared with those fed on reference diet. It has been revealed in body weight gain and internal organ weight alongside biochemical aspects such as serum lipid profile, AI, ALT, AST and plasma glucose.

Conclusion: No physiological and biochemical critical changes were observed on male Wistar rats due to irradiation. Further researches are needed to estimate the effect of radiation processing on bioactive compounds of the studied agro-industrial wastes extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical and Nutritive Properties of Seeds and Oil deriving from the Sweet Pea (Cyperus esculentus L.) Marketed in Côte d’Ivoire

Aka Boigny Aurèle Ange, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, Coulibaly Adama, Chatigre Kouamé Olivier, Biego Godi Henri

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28217

Aims: To assess physico-chemical and nutritive traits in seeds and seed oil of the sweet pea marketed in Abidjan and consumed in Côte d'Ivoire.

Study Design: Pool of sweet pea seeds samples gathered from communal markets in District of Abidjan. Biochemical parameters investigated, and then sweet pea oil extracted from dried seeds and characterized for its main properties.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Biosciences Unit, between January and May 2015.

Methodology: Sweet pea seeds gathered from nine communal wholesale markets considered in three communes of the District of Abidjan, three markets each commune. A pool of 5 kg of the overall sweet pea seeds samples was constituted. Then, biochemical parameters (moisture, proteins, lipids, ash, glucides, caloric value, and carbohydrates components) of the seeds samples were evaluated with official standard methods. Furthermore, the oil extracted from dried sweet pea seeds was characterized for properties: oil physicochemical quality (oil density, iodine, and peroxide and saponification indexes, acid value) and biochemical parameters (saturated and unsaturated fatty acids).

Results: The sweet pea seeds are with high contents of glucides (41.60±0.36 %), lipids (25.40±0.09%), and fibers (27.40±0.02%) and provide 8.25±0.01% of proteins. The most abundant glucides are starch (24.44±0.40 g/100 g) and sucrose (14.7±0.01%). The oil resulting from sweet pea seeds is richer in unsaturations, with iodine index of 130.9±0.88 g of I2/100 g and unsaturated fatty acid content of 78.73%. This oil also reveals acceptable quality, with acid value of 1.18±0.05 mg KOH/g, peroxide index of 2.80±0.43 mEq O2/kg, and contains secondary phytonutrients gathered within 0.96±0.012% of unsaponifiable compounds.

Conclusion: Thanks to the significant nutritive properties of the raw sweet pea seeds, and then the quality of their oil, especially the rather presence of unsaturated fatty acids, valorization of sweet pea seeds in foodstuffs could increase the profitability of this culture.