Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Lead on Human Blood Antioxidant Enzymes and Glutathione

Ambica P. Jangid, V. P. S. Shekhawat, Hemant Pareek, D. Yadav, Praveen Sharma, P. J. John

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26992

Human exposure to lead may alter the enzyme antioxidants level and the interaction between antioxidants and blood lead level (BLL) eventually cause oxidative stress. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to establish the relationship between the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and antioxidant molecule reduced glutathione (GSH) with varying BLLs. A randomly selected 250 subjects from rural-urban populations of either sex ranging in age from 20 to 70 years were investigated. The mean value of BLL in 250 subjects was 15.16±11.82 μg/dl with a minimum level of 0.1 μg/dl and the maximum level of 39.71 μg/dl. Pearson’s linear correlation analyses were used to evaluate the influence of BLL on the enzyme antioxidants. Significant modulation of enzymes antioxidants on BLLs and characteristics of demographic data such as habits, substances abuse (smoking effect), sex and diet of rural-urban population were observed in present investigation. The urban population, non-vegetarians, males and smokers had higher blood lead levels. The BLL was negatively correlated with the activity of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH. Increased BLLs and statistically significant decreased activity of enzyme antioxidants might contribute to lead-induced toxicity in urban population. These findings suggest a rationale for lowering the enzyme antioxidants with decreasing BLLs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Partial Purification and Characterization of Phospholipase A2 Inhibitor from Echis ocellatus Serum

F. A. Adamude, A. J. Nok, N. Aliyu, E. Onyike

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26949

The most effective and acceptable therapy for snakebite victims is the immediate administration of antivenin following envenomation which is limited by problems of hypersensitivity reactions in sensitive individuals and its inability to resolve the local effects of the venom. Phospholipase A2 Inhibitor from Echis ocellatus Serum (PIES) was isolated, partially purified and characterized. The neutralizing protein from E. ocellatus serum inhibited the E. ocellatus (carpet viper) venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme in a dose dependent manner. A two step purification process on sephadex G-200 column chromatography and DEAE- cellulose chromatography gave an active fraction that inhibited the venom PLA2 by 78%. The result from SDS-PAGE showed the inhibitor to be a 24.98kDa protein and its kinetic study revealed a mixed pattern of inhibition on the carpet viper venom PLA2 with an estimated Ki values of 3.8%(v/v) to 7.3%(v/v). The study was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria from June 2011 to August 2012. The relevance of these findings towards understanding the biochemistry of carpet viper envenomation and the development of a novel antivenin drug in future targeting the activity of PIES are discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnostic Significance of Icteric Index

Usha Sachidananda Adiga

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/28150

Background: The pre-analytical errors occur commonly due to the presence of interfering substances like hemoglobin, bilirubin, lipids and paraproteins. Analyzer has the capability to detect them and produce semi quantitative unit less index values, collectively known as serum indices.  Interference with bilirubin is estimated as icteric index. Aim of the study is to assess the icteric index of serum samples and to find the correlation with total bilirubin levels. Objective is also to find out whether icteric index can be used as a initial biomarker to decide when total bilirubin estimation is essential.

Methodology: The study was conducted in the Biochemistry Department of Karwar Institute of Medical Sciences, Karwar. Icteric index was measured in 779 patients’ blood samples in the year 2015 using XL-640,Transasia analyzer at 480 nm (primary wavelength) and 505 nm (secondary wavelength). Total bilirubin was also estimated for these blood samples. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was carried out to determine area under the curve (AUC).

Results: Area under the curve for ROC was 0.814. Sensitivity of the test was 92.4% and specificity was more than 93.2%. Positive predictive value of icteric index is 96.1% and negative predictive value is 82.2%. LR+ is 13.6 and LR- is 0.08. The cut off value of icteric index above which bilirubin levels are considered abnormal (> 1mg/dl) was 58.

Conclusion: The icteric index is a cost effective test and can be safely utilized by laboratories as a screening tool for hyperbilirubinemias.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Status in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with and without Complications

Reenu Sharma, Maulik Nayak, Rita M. Shah

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/27764

Oxidative stress plays an important role in different disease processes. Some studies conducted on diabetic patients also support it. But very few studies have been conducted in the Indian subcontinent so far. Lipid peroxidation refers to the oxidative degradation of lipids. In this process free radicals take electrons from the lipids (generally in cell membranes), resulting in cell damage. Quantification of lipid peroxidation is essential to assess oxidative stress in pathophysiological processes. The end products of lipid peroxidation are reactive aldehydes such as malondialdehyde (MDA) as natural bi-products. Measuring the end products of lipid peroxidation is one of the most widely accepted assays for oxidative damage. This study was designed to assess the levels of oxidative stress in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) and to compare them with controls. Also, the study attempted to evaluate correlation between oxidative stress marker MDA and lipids as well as lipoproteins in type 2 DM subjects both with and without complications so as to analyse the role of lipid peroxidation in causing secondary pathophysiologic changes in multiple organ systems. The present study was conducted in Department of Clinical Biochemistry S.B.K.S. Medical Institute. & Research Centre, Waghodiya, Gujarat. Sixty diabetic patients were divided into two groups. Group A comprised of 30 (thirty) diabetic patients without complications and Group B comprised of 30 (thirty) diabetic patients with complications. Sixty normal healthy persons were selected for the study to serve as controls. The parameters assessed in diabetic subjects as well as healthy controls were: Serum MDA level which is a product of lipid peroxidation and Serum lipids as well as lipoproteins (Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol). Mean values of MDA in type 2 diabetic subjects with complications were significantly higher (P<0.001) than values observed in type 2 diabetic subjects without complications. Values obtained for the lipids and lipoproteins in type 2 diabetic subjects with complications were significantly high (P≤ 0.001) compared to type 2 diabetic subjects without complications. The present study concludes that there is a significant elevation as well as correlation between oxidative stress marker MDA and various lipid parameters in type 2 diabetic subjects with complications compared to diabetic subjects without complications. This indicates increased lipid peroxidation in DM subjects with complications which may play a significant role in the development of DM associated vascular complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Pro-oxidant Myeloperoxidase and an Oxidative Stress Marker Malondialdehyde in Prediction of Preeclampsia

Reena R., S. M. R. Usha, B. M. Rupakala, H. V. Shetty

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/27595

Aim of the Study: The treatment of preeclampsia (PE) is symptomatic till date, as the etiology of this condition has remained elusive for many centuries. Appreciating polymorphonuclear activation and oxidative stress as the early events in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, we hypothesized that the activity of Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a pro-oxidant enzyme and Malondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress marker may be elevated in preeclamptic subjects. Hence, we set out to estimate their levels in a representative sample of south Indian women with preeclampsia and compare them with controls (uncomplicated, normotensive pregnant women of more than 20 weeks of gestation). 

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Pregnant women attending the Antenatal clinic of Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru, from May 2012 to May 2013 were our study subjects.

Materials and Methods: Fifty uncomplicated, normotensive pregnant women of more than 20 weeks of gestation and fifty clinically diagnosed cases of preeclampsia were our controls and cases respectively. Pregnant women with medical conditions that interfere with the study were excluded. Serum MPO activity and MDA levels were estimated manually by spectrophotometric method.

Results: There was significant (P<0.001) increase in MPO levels and MDA levels in preeclampsia patients compared to controls.

Conclusion: There was increase in pro-oxidant and oxidative stress marker levels indicating an oxidative stress in PE. Thus this study shows that oxidative stress may play a key role in the pathogenesis of PE which contributes to endothelial dysfunction and maternal signs and symptoms.  Estimation of MPO and MDA in early pregnancy may help in identifying pregnant women at risk of developing preeclampsia and execution of preventive measures.