Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Diabetogenic Potential of Atorvastatin and the Effects of Atorvastatin on Body Weight, Haematological Indices, Serum Calcium Level in Female Albino Wistar Rats

Blessing Uchechi Onwuchekwa, Nsemekeaba Godwin Ikitde, Ekanemesang Udoudo Moses, Edet O. Akpanyung

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26548

Aim: This study was designed to assess the effects of different doses of atorvastatin on fasting blood sugar, body weight, haematological indices, serum calcium and CRP levels in female albino wistar rats. 

Study Design: Twenty-four female albino wistar rats weighing 125 to 150 g were used for this experiment. They were separated into four groups of 6 rats each and administered different concentrations (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg/ml) of atorvastatin daily for 21 days. Group 1 received placebo treatment, groups 2, 3 and 4 received 40, 80 and 120 mg of atorvastatin respectively. Fasting blood sugar was routinely monitored at 3 days interval while the body weight was monitored at 7 days (weekly) interval. At the expiration of the treatment, serum samples were analyzed for effects of the drug on the levels of serum calcium of the animals. Whole blood samples were also analyzed for its effect on some hematological parameters.

Results: The results obtained showed that in all the treated groups (groups 2, 3 and 4) there was an overall decrease in C-reactive protein and haematological indices (WBCs, RBCs, platelets and hemoglobin) compared to the control. The result of the fasting blood sugar showed a non-significant and non-consistent increase in fasting blood sugar between the control and treated groups. Treated groups II and III showed significant increase (p<0.05) in iCa levels compared to the control. The values obtained for body weight did not show overall significant difference (p>0.05) in body weight among the study groups.

Conclusion: Short term exposure to atorvastatin did not produce diabetic (hyperglycaemic) side effect. The body weight of the animals did not significantly change, the haematological indices decreased, serum C-reactive protein level decreased and there was increase in serum calcium level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Chronic Consumption of Monosodium Glutamate in Sprague Dawley Rats’ Liver

I. C. Oladipo, E. A. Adebayo, O. M. Kuye, A. A. Olanbiwoninu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26324

The safety of monosodium glutamate (MSG) usage has generated much controversy, because of the toxic nature of monosodium glutamate which is often added to food to improve taste and the fear that this may have deleterious effect on many organs of the body is on the increase. The evaluation of the effect of monosodium glutamate (analytical and commercial grade) on the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats was carried out. Monosodium glutamate administration caused significant increase in the body weight of experimental rats also the sera revealed that the transaminases level were significantly up-regulated. Evidence from histological data confirmed structural changes like hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes, periportal cellular infiltration by mononuclear cells, severe portal and central venous congestion which is an indication that the liver functions may have been affected.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vivo Antiplasmodial Activity of Aqueous, N-Butanol and Ethylacetate Fractions of Leaf and Stem Bark Methanol Extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis on Plasmodium berghei berghei (Nk65) Infected Mice

M. Oguche, H. C. Nzelibe

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/21645

Aim: To determine the in-vivo antiplasmodial activity of aqueous, N-butanol and ethylacetate fractions of leaf and stem bark methanol extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis on Plasmodium berghei berghei (Nk65) infected mice.

Place and Duration of Study Sample: Biochemistry Department. Ahmadu Bello University Zaria and Pharmacy Department. Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. For a period of 6 months.

Methodology: A total of 130 mice weighing between 18-28 g were randomly divided into thirteen (13) groups each (leaf extract=65 mice, stem bark extract =65 mice) of five (5) mice per group. Leaf extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and stem bark extract at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions, chloroquine (5 mg/kg) and Artesunate (10 mg/kg) were administered orally for four days. Qualitative, quantitative, parasitemia, packed cell volume and relative body weight analysis of the mice were monitored.

Results: The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of carbohydrates, free anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, glycosides, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids in the crude leaf extract and absence of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, free anthraquinone and alkaloids in the stem bark extract. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the fractions of leaf and stem bark extract of Diospyros mespiliformis showed that, saponins (0.57±0.06 mg/gl), (0.36±0.21 mg/gl), alkaloids (0.12±0.04 mg/gl), (0.67±0.01 mg/gl), tannins (0.73±0.36 mg/gl), (0.51±0.22 mg/gl), and glycoside had the highest concentration of (1.15±0.10 mg/gl), (0.97±0.33 mg/gl) respectively. At the end of the four (4) days suppressive test, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in the negative control group and significance (P<0.05) increase in the infected but treated with chloroquine. Relative organ weight in the negative control group showed significant (P<0.05) increase in n-butanol and aqueous fractions.

Conclusion: The present work establishes the antiplasmodial activity of the methanol extract of Diospyros mespiliformis which have shown potent parasite suppressive effects on P. berghei infected Swiss albino mice in a dose related fashion. Leaf and stem bark extract of Diospyros mespiliformis have shown potent parasite suppressive effects on P. berghei infected mice in a dose related fashion which is in agreement with previous studies. The extracts treated groups did not show a significant decrease in PCV (P> 0.05) when compared to the negative control group. This is suggestive that the extract may contain some substances that either increase appetite or blood quality to the animals, in addition to its anti-plasmodial activity. Therefore, the extracts showed a potential source of new chemotherapeutic agent. The mechanism of action of the leaf and stem bark methanol extracts exhibited competitive and non-competitive pattern of inhibition respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective and Curative Antiobesity Potential of Lemon Peel Extract in Rats Fed on High Fat Diet: Mechanism of Action

Magda Ezz, Azza Atef, Nagwa Hassanein, Zeinab Badr

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26651

Aim: This study was to investigate the effect of dietary lemon peel extract (LPE) on high fat diet induced obesity in rats. Some of the LPE mechanism of action was also elucidated. Fifty adult rats were divided into five groups: 1) normal control, 2) lemon peel extract group supplemented with 0.5 g% LPE for 12 weeks, 3) high fat diet-fed (HFD) for 12 weeks, 4) preventive group fed on high fat diet supplemented with LPE 0.5 g% for 12 weeks and 5) therapeutic group fed on high fat diet for 12 weeks then supplemented with LPE 0.5 g% further 6 weeks.

Methodology: Body weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, serum lipid profile, serum glucose, serum insulin, erythrocytes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, serum adiponectin, leptin, acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACO) and medium chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) activities were measured.

Results: Body weight gain, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, G6PD activity and leptin were significantly suppressed by the effect of LPE in treated groups. LPE also, up-regulated ACO and MCAD activities in the LPE-treated groups. Additionally mRNA level of ACO in the liver was up-regulated in LPE-treated groups compared with HFD.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that LPE prevent body weight gain and fat accumulation through improvement of lipid metabolism by up-regulating the activities of MCAD and ACO while down regulating the activity of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase. In this context, the preventive effect of LPE was more pronounced than the therapeutic effect.

Open Access Review Article

Strategies for the Engineering of Recombinant Protein and its High Level Expression

Fayqa Komal, Faiza Asghar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26639

A large number of proteins are efficiently produced by microbes. Protein engineering especially working with enzymes has become a very promising section of the biotechnology industry. Due to increasing demands of proteins, bioengineering strategies have been gaining importance to modify natural enzymes. Commercially, hundreds of proteins are produced, the production of recombinant proteins still constitutes a challenge in many cases. Most common protein engineering techniques include i) Directed evolution, ii) Site-directed mutagenesis, iii) Truncation, iv) Terminal fusion. After engineering the desired protein, there is another great challenge to get the high level expression and solubility of the proteins. Four levels of strategies can be used to increase the expression and solubility of recombinant proteins; (1) vector selection, (2) host selection, (3) fermentation optimization and (4) codon optimization. Here we present the latest methods of protein engineering and molecular expression of industrially important enzymes and to get good quality of recombinant proteins. In this article, we have reviewed the different approaches, common problems, their solutions and also covered pros and cons of many of the latest used techniques in this ever-growing field.