Open Access Original Research Article

Manganese, Zinc and Chloride Content of Milk of West African Dwarf Goats as Influenced by Stage of Lactation

O. A. Ogunwole

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/25927

The manganese, Zinc and chloride content in milk of West African dwarf (WAD) goats as influenced by stage of lactation was assessed using three WAD does aged 18 months of age, weighing from 19 to 20 Kg. They were kept for lactation studies lasting for two 10-weeks periods. Individual milk samples were taken from each animal daily for the first seven days (colostrums), from day one after parturition and once per week for 10 weeks. The samples collected were thereafter assayed chemically for Mn, Zn and Cl. Colostrum was much higher in its content of Mn (0.24±0.02 mg/L), Zn (14.40±0.19 mg/L) and Cl (237.14±14.0 mg / 100 mL) compared with the mature milk which contained Mn (0.12±0.01 mg/L), Zn (4.40±0.15 mg/L) and Cl (192.70±2.2 mg/100 mL). The three elements decreased highly significantly (P<0.01) with stage of lactation. The decreasing trends were neither linear nor quadratic (P>0.05). In conclusion, the content of these minerals in milk of goat was highly dependent on the stage of lactation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Factor Receptors and Liver Injury

Elsayed Gomaa Elsayed Elsakka, Gamil Mohammed Abd-Allah, Ahmed Ibrahim El-Desouky Abulsoud, Ahmed Mohammed Ibrahim Mansour, Sayed Abdel Raheem

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26031

Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression pattern of transforming growth factor β receptor I(TGFβRI) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) at the different stages of liver injury including acute injury, fibrosis and cirrhosis.

Study Design: Controlled experiment. 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of biochemistry and department of pharmacology and toxicology, faculty of pharmacy (boys) Al-Azhar university, between February 2015 and June 2015.

Methodology: Four Sprague-Dawley rats groups were used for the experiment. Control group: 9 rats received corn oil; Acute toxicity group: 10 rats were injected 50% CCl4 in corn oil (4 ml/kg/IP/single dose); 6 weeks group: 12 rats were injected with 50% CCl4 in corn oil (4 ml/kg/IP/twice weekly/6 weeks); 11 weeks group: 10 rats were injected with 50% CCl4 in corn oil (4 ml/kg/IP/twice weekly/6 weeks) followed by 5 weeks of CCl4 treatment with the half previous dose.

On the day after the last dose, rats were anesthetized with diethyl ether and blood samples were collected for measurement of blood chemistry. The animals then were euthanized, and tissue samples from the livers were harvested and divided into 2 parts; the first was processed for standard histology and immunofluorescence techniques and the other was homogenized for oxidative status assessment.

Results: TGFβRI and FGFR3 were shown to upregulate in chronic liver injury including stages of fibrosis and cirrhosis. While TGFβRI was shown to be located mainly in the cell membrane, the cytoplasm was shown to be the main site for FGFR3 localization.

Conclusion: TGFβRI and FGFR3 were suggested to be of critical importance in pathogenesis of chronic liver injury so they may be used as a target for chronic liver injury therapy and/or candidate marker for diagnosis and/or prognosis of chronic liver injury.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of the Genetic Mutation CYP2C8*5 in Selected Ethnic Groups in Southern Ghana

Charles Brown, Christopher Larbie, Dominic Selorm Yao Amuzu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/25680

Aim: The study determined prevalence of clinically relevant CYP2C8*5 polymorphism in 80 unrelated individuals, from selected ethnic groups in Southern Ghana. Medical history on adverse drug reactions of the subjects and level of dependency on drugs metabolized by CYP2C8 enzyme was obtained by questionnaire. Allele Specific-PCR analyses were used to genotype CYP2C8*5 alleles in the study subjects.

Results: Allelic frequency for CYP2C8*5 was 83.75% which was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in the prevalence of CYP2C8*5 allele within the ethnic groups. Also, there was no significant association (p >0.05) between CYP2C8*5 allele and reported ADRs. Many (88.75%) of the study subjects depended highly (>1-3x in a year) on drugs metabolized by CYP2C8.

Conclusions: The high prevalence of CYP2C8*5 determined in the study population may indicate a high risk of toxicity in using drugs metabolize by CYP2C8 since CYP2C8*5 mutants have been reported to have a reduced enzymatic activity. This is the first reported study on prevalence of CYP2C8*5 in Ghanaians.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utility of Lipoprotein (a) as a Marker of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Hypothyroid Patients

N. Chandrika, S. M. R. Usha, H. V. Shetty, Victoria Kshetrimayum

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/26843

Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the utility of lipoprotein (a) as a reliable cardiovascular risk marker in hypothyroid patients. This involved estimation and comparison of lipoprotein (a) levels between hypothyroid patients and healthy adults. To correlate lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] with thyroid stimulating hormone was the other objective of this study.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place and the Duration of the Study: Department of Biochemistry and Department of General Medicine, Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru, between January 2014 and May 2014.

Methodology: Forty one individuals aged between 18 and 55 years, who were newly diagnosed with hypothyroidism were our cases. Twenty nine age and sex matched healthy volunteers constituted the controls. Serum Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Free Thyroxine (FT4), Serum total cholesterol (TC), serum low density lipoprotein (LDL), serum high density lipoprotein (HDL), serum triglycerides (TGL) and serum Lipoprotein (a) were estimated by standard methods in cases and controls. The anthropometric data included measurement of weight and height of study subjects in order to calculate their body mass index (BMI).

Results: The mean ± SD of the lipid parameters (TC, LDL, VLDL, HDL and TGL) in both the groups were almost same and were at the upper limit of the reference range. The mean ± SD levels of Lp(a) in cases was 39.4±26.5 mg/dl and 18.1±7.4 mg/dl in controls. There was no correlation between lipoprotein (a) and thyroid stimulating hormone in both cases and controls.

Conclusion: Lipoprotein (a) levels are elevated in hypothyroidism and it can be considered as a reliable marker to detect cardiovascular disease risk in hypothyroid patients when estimated by a standard method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sulphasalazine Prevents Fibrosis; Relevance of TGFβRI

Elsayed Gomaa Elsayed Elsakka, Gamil Mohammed Abd-Allah, Ahmed Ibrahim Abulsoud, Ahmed Mohammed Ibrahim Mansour, Sayed Abdel Raheem

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/25627

Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of sulphasalazine on liver fibrosis. Besides; investigation of the expression pattern of transforming growth factor β receptor I (TGFβRI) in liver fibrosis and the possible modulatory effect of sulphasalazine on it.

Study Design: Controlled experiment. 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of pharmacy (boys) Al-Azhar University, between February 2015 and June 2015.

Methodology: Five Sprague-Dawley rats groups were used for the experiment. Control group: Receiving corn oil; DMSO group: Injected with DMSO; 6 weeks group: Injected with 50% CCl4 in corn oil; sulphasalazine group: Injected with sulphasalazine and CCl4 and finally mesalazine group: were given mesalazine and CCl4. On the day after the last dose, rats were anesthetized with diethyl ether and blood samples were collected for measurement of blood chemistry. The animals then were euthanized, and livers were harvested and divided into 2 parts; one part was processed for standard histology and immunofluorescence techniques and the other was homogenized for oxidative status assessment.

Results: TGFβRI has been shown to be upregulated in chronic liver injury; fibrosis stage; with expression occurring mainly in cell membrane of lesion area. This expression was decreased significantly with sulphasalazine treatment. Sulphasalazine has shown to have ability to diminish fibrosis in chronic liver injury. This decrease in fibrosis observed with sulphasalazine was in parallel with decrease in TGFβRI expression. Besides; this action of sulphasalazine has been suggested to be due to the whole molecule not to its moiety; mesalazine.

Conclusion: TGFβRI may be used as a candidate marker for diagnosis and prognosis of chronic liver diseases. Besides; it may be used as a target therapy for chronic liver diseases. Moreover; sulphasalazine might be a promising adjuvant therapy for chronic liver diseases.