Open Access Method Article

Optimization of an Efficient RNA Isolation Protocol from Fusarium wilted Pigeonpea Plant (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh)

Koushik Biswas, Parthadeb Ghosh

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/25978

Aims: The present study demonstrated a comparative evaluation of RNA isolation from pigeonpea by using conventional or modified laboratory based methods as well as optimizing the existing well known protocol to extract a satisfactory amount of purified and reproducible RNA required for downstream processing.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India in 2015.

Methodology: In the present investigation, an attempt was made to optimize the method for getting high quality RNA from healthy pigeonpea seedling as well as inoculated with fungal strain of Fusarium udum (FU) Butler. After optimizing the method showing best performance among all experimenting protocols, the RNAs were further validated for quality by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for amplification of plant specific Ascorbate peroxidase           gene (APX) and FU specific Cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) gene responsible for infectivity of     Fusarium udum.

Results: The determinant applications of Guanidium thiocyanate (GITC) and sodium citrate based lysis buffer for efficient extraction at initial step and an effective precipitation by using isopropanol and sodium chloride in the final step made a successful optimization of the excellent quality of total RNA isolation. The same RNA was self sufficient to identify the traces of plant and fungal specific gene through RT-PCR.

Conclusion: This observation under certain modifications could be effective to get RNA of excellent quality with the elevated yield from extremely challenging high polysaccharides and polyphenolic rich pigeonpea plant. Simultaneously this experimental design will not only provide better options for the identification of rare transcripts involved in resistance mechanisms in pigeonpea against various stress responses, but also make an opportunity to study the plant pathogen interaction at the molecular level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sorghum –Garlic Blended Diet Prophylactically Fed to Experimental Rats Prevent the Establishment of trypanosomes in the T. b brucei- Infected Animals

M. H. Garba, A. Abubakar, A. Abdulkadir, Y. Garba, M. Inuwa, L. M. Hafsa, B. J. Lekene, S. Abubakar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/24356

Aim: This research work set to investigate the effect of feeding a mixture of two functional foods with a view to ascertain their therapeutic effect against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in challenged rats.

Experimental Design: Complete randomized clinical trial design was used in the experiment. The rats were blocked for sex and grouped into A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and J respectively. Each group consists of three (3) rats.

Place and Duration of the Study: The research work was conducted in the Biochemistry and Nutrition laboratory in the Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria. Four weeks feeding trial was employed in the cause of the experiment.

Methodology: A total of 30 albino Wister rats were randomly grouped into ten (10) treatments each containing 3 rats (i.e. A- J). To groups A- E, feed containing graded level of inclusion of blended Sorghum- Garlic (10:1) at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% level was fed to them. Group F, were fed the conventional feed only (i.e. negative control). Group G, were fed solely with the pulverised sorghum bicolor (without Garlic added to it). Group H, were fed with conventional feed supplemented with garlic only. Another group of three rats, (i.e. group I) were fed with the supplemented diet with the average inclusion rate of 15% for 3 days prior to infection. To the final group (i.e. group J), as in group I but the feeding period prior to infection was extended to 7 days. Parasitaemia was thereafter monitored on two days interval while the effects of non prophylactic feeding (25%) and seven days prophylactic feeding (at 12.5%) of the experimental diet on the haematological parameters of rats was also determined.

Results: Seven days prophylactic feeding of the experimental animals with 12.5% inclusion of the sorghum-garlic prior to their infection with the parasites proves to be effective against the establishment and subsequent proliferation of the parasites. Also, significant difference (P = 0.05) in the haematological parameters was observed between the group prophylactically fed the sorghum-garlic supplemented diet for seven days period at 12.5% inclusion and the group fed at 25% inclusion and infected just a day after.

Conclusion: This study demonstrate the potency of prophylactic feeding of sorghum-garlic (functional foods) as nutraceutical against trypanosomiasis and as a haematopoietic agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-diabetic Effect of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Axonopus compressus (P. Beauv) in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Ukegbu Chimere, Odiba Arome, Edeke Affiong, Anunobi Ogechukwu, Chukwunonyelum Ike

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/25425

Aims: This study is a preliminary step in investigating the anti-diabetic effect of the methanolic extract of the leaf of Axonopus compressus (P. Beauv) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Study Design/Methodology: Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan monohydrate at the dose of 180 mg/kg b.w was carried out to induce diabetes in the rat models. Different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w.) of the extract was administered per oral through gastric gavage to the alloxan induced diabetic rats, and 2 mg/kg b.w. of glibenclamide was used as the standard drug, and only tween 20 solution (10 ml/kg) given to the negative control group. AccuCheck Active® (an auto-analyzer) glucose kit was used to assay the effects of the P. Beauv extract and the standard drug on the fasting blood glucose level at 0, 1, 3 and 6 hr(s) using the blood collected through the snip made in the tail of the rats.

Results: The different doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. produced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the blood glucose level of the alloxan-induced diabetic animal models in the degree of 31.5%, 19.8% and 24.5% respectively, compared to the negative control group and this was time dependent (at the end of the 6th hour, although a decrease in the blood glucose was also noticed at the 1st and 3rd hours). 2 mg/kg glibenclamide decreased the blood glucose levels by 69.9% while the blood glucose level of the negative control group increased by 15.2% at the 6th hour.

Conclusion: It is obvious from the above findings that Axonopus compressus deserves further investigations into the active ingredients and structural allucidation to validate the anti-diabetic property it possess.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Grinding Plates (GUK, Parpela and Premier) on Maize Flour Milled within Samaru, Nigeria

Yashim Zakka Israila, Suleiman Halima

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/21681

This research work was carried out to determine the concentration of Cu, Mn, Pb and Fe in maize flour milled by different types of milling plates in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria. Three different types of milling plates with the trade names GUK (Gibraltar upgrade kit), Parpela and Premier were identified at different locations where the dry maize grains bought from Samaru market were milled three times to obtain a smooth texture. Sample of the maize was also ground using porcelain mortar and pestle to serve as control. Wet digestion was carried out on the flour samples and the concentration of Cu, Mn, Pb and Fe determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the concentrations of the metals were higher than those of the control. Using one-way ANOVA, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the metal levels in maize flour milled with grinding plate and those ground with mortar and pestle. This implies that the grinding plates have contributed significantly to the heavy metals in the maize flour. Pb and Mn levels from the three milling plates were higher than the recommended limit set by the FAO/WHO, but the Pb level from Premier plate which is foreign was much higher than others which are locally fabricated. This could be undoubtedly injurious to the human body. Therefore, the quality of the grinding plates imported or fabricated locally in Nigeria should be checked by the relevant agency such as Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON).

Open Access Review Article

Early Detection of Prostate Cancer: Immunoassay for Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Tumor Marker

Tunji Akande

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/24832

Background: Serum tumor markers are widely used clinically for monitoring response to therapy and detecting cancer recurrence. However, only a limited number of them have been effectively used for the early detection of cancer.

Objective: To review serum tumor markers used clinically, for the early detection of prostate cancer.

Methods: Literature review of serum tumor marker that have been widely accepted for the early detection of prostate cancer.

Results: In Nigeria only prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been clinically used for the early detection of prostate cancer. The analytical and clinical issues linked to its use were discussed.

Conclusion: Few serum tumor markers have been used effectively for the early detection of cancer, mainly due to their limited diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. PSA is the only tissue-specific marker identified, but it is not specific for prostate cancer. Various approaches have been developed to improve the clinical performance of PSA for the early detection of prostate cancer.