Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and HPTLC Finger Printing of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. Leaf

Ravi Sundar Prajapati, G. P. Richhariya, Ravindra Singh, I. P. Tripathi, Rajesh Kumar Prajapati, Manoj Tripathi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/25118

Herbal medicine also known as botanical medicine refers to using plants seeds, flowers, roots for medicinal purpose. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn is a large shrub or small tree, found throughout in India as well as chitrakoot region.  It is commonly known as Harshingar, night jasmine, and parijat. It is used for its antibacterial, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, immune potential, antipyretic, antioxidant and antifungal activity. The present investigation deals with preliminary phytochemical screening and High Performance Thin layer Chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprints profile of Parijat –leaf. For Phytochemical screening two various extracts (ethanolic extract and aqueous extract) of leaf were used and found the Alkaloids, Resins Saponins, Tannins, Terpinoids and Cardiac glycoside present. HPTLC finger printing were carried out on Toluene: Ethyl acetate (7:3); as a mobile phase. The plate ware developed over a distance of 9 cm in a saturated development chamber Twin through chamber 10X10 cm with SS lid and visualized under at 254nm, 366nm, under ultraviolet before and after derivatization. After spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid followed by heating at 105°C for 5-10 minutes. Rf values were noted with colour before and after derivatization. Rf values are before derivatization at 366 nm 0.05, 0.27, 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.51, 0.69, 0.85, 0.92, 0.96 (all red); under ultraviolet: 0.36, 0.41, 0.50, 0.55, 0.95 (light yellow). After derivatization at 366 nm 0.09 (faint white), 0.31, 0.38, 0.49 (orange), 0.58 (yellow), 0.54, 0.84 (both violet), 0.90 (light pink), 0.96(white); under ultraviolet 0.36, 0.51 (both light brown), 0.58 (light black), 0.98 (brown).

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum High Sensitive - C Reactive Protein Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus -A Case Control Study

Sangappa Virupaxappa Kashinakunti, Manjula Rangappa, Gurupadappa Shantappa Kallaganada

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/25305

Background: The process of inflammation induces hepatic synthesis of various acute phase proteins such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) which is believed to play a role in insulin resistance. Higher incidence of type-2 diabetes mellitus has been observed with high levels of hs-CRP.

Objectives: The present case control study was under taken to 1. Find the serum hs-CRP levels in type 2 DM patients, 2. Find the serum hs-CRP levels in healthy controls, 3. Compare hs-CRP level between type 2 DM patients and healthy control subjects, 4. Find correlation between HbA1c and hs-CRP in type 2 DM patients and 5. Find the optimum cut-off value for hs-CRP for type 2 DM

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on type 2 DM subjects from Jan 2015 to February 2016. The FBS, PPBS, HbA1c and hs-CRP was estimated. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to show the correlation.

Results: The biochemical parameters FBS, PPBS, HbA1c and hs-CRP levels were increased in cases compared to controls. The p value was 0.0001 for all the parameters, which is highly significant. There is a positive correlation between the HbA1c and hs-CRP. The area under the ROC curve for serum hs-CRP values at various cut-off was 0.797 and the best cut-off of serum hs-CRP levels greater than 3.86 mg/L.

Conclusion: The hs-CRP was higher in healthy controls of this ethnic group. hs-CRP levels were high in type 2 diabetes mellitus, which correlated with HbA1c. Routine screening for hs-CRP in diabetes patients can be done with best cut-off value of 3.86 mg/L.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oxidized-LDL, Toll-like Receptor 4, Lipocalin 2 and Omentin1: Role in Diabetic Nephropathy

Walaa Arafa Keshk, Noha Said Esheba

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/25286

Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the major micro-vascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is the main cause for end-stage kidney disease. In view of metabolic derangements of T2DM, we went further to investigate the role played by oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), lipocalin-2 (LCN2), and omentin-1 in DN.

Patients and Methods: 15 normo-albuminuria T2DM, 15 micro-albuminuria T2DM and 15 macro-albuminuria T2DM in addition to 15 apparently healthy volunteer who served as control group were enrolled in this study. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. Plasma Ox-LDL, omentin- 1 and urinary LCN2 levels by immunoassy and TLR4 mRNA level with real time PCR were assessed. Results: TLR4 gene expression, Plasma ox-LDL, urinary LCN2 levels were increased in T2DM cases as compared to their allied control group with the higher values were for macro-albuminuria T2DM cases. Meanwhile Plasma omentin-1 level was decreased in T2DM cases when compared to their allied control group with least values were for macro-albuminuria T2DM cases. Also there were positive correlations between TLR4 mRNA, ox-LDL, urinary LCN2 levels and serum creatinine, fasting blood glucose, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Meanwhile, omentin 1 showed negative correlations with serum creatinine, fasting blood glucose, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Conclusions: Ox-LDL, TLR4, LCN2 and omentin 1 may confer a relevant role in diabetic nephropathy development and progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Inhibitory Effect of Methanol Leaf Extract of Cadaba farinosa on Carbonic Anhydrase Activity

S. I. Ibrahim, D. A. Ameh, S. E. Atawodi, I. A. Umar, U. M. Jajere, S. Y. Mohammed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/24604

Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the carbonic anhydrase inhibitory potential of Cadaba farinosa leaf extract.

Methodology: Cadaba farinosa leaves were extracted using soxhlet apparatus by n-Hexane, followed by Ethyl acetate and then Methanol. The extracts were tested against in vitro carbonic anhydrase activity. The most active extract was further purified to determine in vitro the most active fraction against carbonic anhydrase activity. The purified fractions of Methanol extracts were subjected to FTIR and GC-MS analysis to determine the functional compounds responsible of such biological activity.

Results: The result of the present study revealed the presence of inhibitory activity of n-Hexane and Ethyl acetate extract against carbonic anhydrase whereas the Methanol extract showed activation against the enzyme. Purified fractions of Methanol leaf extract revealed the presence of activator and inhibitor fraction. FTIR analysis of the inhibitor fraction of methanol leaf extract revealed characteristic band absorption similar to alpha aminonitrile while the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of derivatives ribonitrile, of methyl hydrazine, methyl pyridine.

Conclusion: Cadaba farinosa leaf has compounds that can inhibit and activate carbonic anhydrase, and thus could be used in the development of nitrile-containing pharmaceuticals which are prescribed for a diverse variety of medicinal indications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Phytosterols and Vitamins A and E Composition of Vegetable Oil Brands Consumed in Nigeria

O. B. Ajayi, O. I. Malachi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22920

Since the techniques employed in refining can alter the chemical composition of edible oils, the phytosterol and vitamins A and E composition of branded vegetable oils sold in Nigeria were determined. The result showed that sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and 5-Avenasterol were the major phytosterol present; with much lesser amounts of cholestanol and ergosterol. The cholesterol concentration was less than 10 mg/100 g in all the samples and was thus labeled “no cholesterol” by the manufacturers. Vitamin A supplementation for all the oil brands was about 7.5 mg/100 g for all the samples. A considerably high amount of vitamin E was retained in all the oil brands, Executive Chef Soya bean oil showing the highest concentration of vitamin E. It was thus concluded that the techniques employed in refining the oils retained an acceptable amount of phytosterol and vitamin E in the products.