Open Access Original Research Article

Lack of Association between Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms and Coronary Artery Disease among Egyptian Population

Afaf M. El Saied, Azza M. El Wakf, Rehab Elmougy, AfafAbd El Hafez, Sahar M. Hussien

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23818

Controversial results regarding the association of e NOS gene polymorphisms with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) have been reported up to now, there has been conflicting data regarding the association between two clinically relevant polymorphisms (T-786C) in the promoter region and intron 4 variable number of 27-bp tandem repeats (VNTR) of the eNOS gene and  coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study was undertaken to investigate association of these two eNOS gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to CAD in Egyptian population. A total of 80 patients with CAD and 40 healthy controls were included in this study. CAD patients were divided according to their body mass index (BMI) limits into 2 main groups: normal weigh group (BMI: 18.5–24.9, n=40) and abnormal weight group (BMI≥25, n= 40), the last group was further sub-divided into overweight group (BMI: 25.0–29.9, n= 20) and obese group (BMI≥ 30, n= 20).

The T-786C and intron 4 VNTR polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. The T-786C polymorphism frequencies for T/T, T/C and C/C genotypes were 27.5%, 28.75%, 43.75% respectively in the CAD patients, and 35%, 37.5%, 27.5% in  the control subjects, while allele frequencies for C, T were  58.12%, 41.87% in the CAD patients and 46.25%, 53.75%, in the control group. No significant differences were observed in genotype frequencies between CAD patient group when compared to control group, or between them according to allele frequency. Also, there was no significant differences in the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of T786-C polymorphism among the overweight and obese cases compared to normal weight subjects. The genotype frequencies for eNOS b/b, a/b, a/a were 45%, 50% and 5% in the CAD patients, and 35%, 65% and 0% in the control subjects, with no significant difference between the two groups. Also, there were no significant difference in the allele frequencies between the CAD patients (a: b = 30%:70%), and controls (a: b = 32.5%:67.5%) as well as in the distribution of genotype and alleles frequencies of intron 4 VNTR of eNOS gene when overweight and obese patient groups were compared with the normal weight patient group. Thus the present study suggested that the two eNOS gene polymorphisms (the eNOS T-786C and intron 4 VNTR polymorphisms) were unlikely to be major genetic susceptibility factors for CAD in the Egyptian population even after classification of the CAD patients according to their BMI. Further studies with larger sample size are required to be done to confirm these findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of Four Local Alcoholic Drinks of Benin

Moutawakilou Gomina, Nicolas Aïkou, Haziz Sina, Cyrille Vodounon, Dominique Saka, Simon Ayélèroun Akpona, Lamine Baba-Moussa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/24591

Aims: To identify glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of four local alcoholic drinks of Benin in young and healthy adult subjects.

Study Design: An experimental study.

Methodology: After ethic advice, 40 voluntary subjects (24 men, 16 women), were selected among the students of the University of Parakou (Benin) and divided into 4 groups of 10. Each group of subjects consumed 100 mL of one of the four beverages (tchoukoutou, sodabi, fresh palm wine, fermented palm wine), alone and with 100 g of whole wheat bread (50 g of carbohydrates). The glycemic response for 2 hours was assessed based on plasma glucoses.

Results: All the four drinks investigated had a low GI: tchoukoutou (20.59%), sodabi (18.34%), fresh palm wine (11.66%) and fermented palm wine (4.27%); but the GL were variable: tchoukoutou (68.77%), fresh palm wine (115.43%) and fermented palm wine (0.42%).

Conclusion: This study contributes to put in place a database of local resources for the prevention and management of some chronic diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Calcium Chloride Can Influence the Stability Flexibility Complementarity and Consequently, Activity of Hydrolases: A Case Study on Porcine Alpha Amylase

Ikechukwu Iloh Udema

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/24761

Aims: The specific aims of the research were i) to investigate the effects of extra “load” of calcium chloride at different temperatures and ethanol on the specific activity of porcine alpha amylase (PPA), ii) characterize the effect of extra calcium chloride in terms of thermodynamic and activation parameters, and iii) determine the (un) folding cooperativity (m – value) as well as free energy of folding – unfolding transition.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Research Division of Ude Concept International Limited (RC 862217), B. B. Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria and Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma, Nigeria. This study is part of a series of research that lasted for 7 months.

Methodology: Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was used. Controls were free from additives while the experimental test was either with calcium chloride or a mixture of alcohol and calcium chloride.

Results: The results presented graphically and in the Tables showed that the specific activity and kinetic parameters of the enzyme with Ca2+ - salt were higher than without Ca2+ - salt. The activation parameters, free energy (DG#), enthalpy (DH#), and entropy(DS#) for Ca2+ - salt treated enzyme were 77.36±0.11 kJ/mol, 54.95±0.96 kJ/mol, and - 68.39±3.03 J/mol.K respectively at 318.15 K. The enthalpy (DH) of enzyme substrate (ES) formation was - 41.10 for Ca2+ - salt treated enzyme. The m – values were positive in sign in the presence of Ca2+ - salt with all alcohols except local gin. All free energy values for folding – unfolding transition at infinite dilution of the Ca2+ - salt were negative for all alcohols except with local gin.

Conclusion: The presence of extra Ca2+ - salt can increase the specific activity, rate constant and catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. The ground state of Ca2+-salt treated enzyme is less flexible than Ca2+-salt free enzyme. The hydrolysis of starch is enthalpically driven in the presence of Ca2+-salt, while entropic factor is the case in the absence of the salt. The positive m – values implied that Ca2+- salt can oppose the effect of a chaotrope like ethanol on the enzyme. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Thyroid Dysfunction in Association with Infertility

Padmini Prakash Habbu, Abdul Kayyum Shaikh

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/24926

Aims: To evaluate the relation of female infertility to thyroid dysfunction.

Study Design: This is a descriptive, hospital-based study.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Gynae and Obst department, Ashwini Rural Medical College, Hospital and research centre Solapur. Over the period of 6 month from August 2015 to January 2016. 

Methodology: The study group included 60 cases among which 48 women were having primary infertility & 12 women had secondary infertility, while control group included 40 fertile euthyroid women. Serum T3, T4 and TSH estimation was done by Enzyme linked fluorescent assay on mini VIDAS.

Results: In hyperthyroid FT3 level 21.33±7.31 pmol/L, in hypothyroid 3.52±1.20 pmol/L (P value < 0.001, i.e., highly significant), and in euthyroid 4.19±0.58 pmol/L (P value ˃ 0.05, i.e., not significant), 4.17±0.80 pmol/L, when compared with control. FT4 level was 52.7±4.52 pmol/L in hyperthyroid (p value ˂0.001. i.e. highly significant), while in hypothyroid 9.80±5.5 pmol/L, and in euthyroid 13.82±3.48 pmol/L (P value ˃ 0.05, i.e. not significant), 14.63±2.85 pmol/L, when compared with control. Serum TSH level in hyperthyroid was 0.22±0.10 µIU/ml, in hypothyroid 21.98±19.86 µIU/ml (P value ˂ 0.001, i.e. significant), 2.61±1.24 µIU/ml in euthyroid (P value ˃ 0.05, i.e. not significant); 2.72±1.51 µIU/ml when compared with control.

Conclusion: Thyroid hormones play an important role in normal reproductive function, both through direct effects on the ovaries and also indirectly by multiple interactions with other sex hormones. Therefore, thyroid dysfunction can lead to menstrual irregularities and, thus, finally to infertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Storage Condition on pH and Vitamin C Content in Some Selected Fruit Juices (Pineapple, Pawpaw and Watermelon)

Muhammad Auwal Ibrahim

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23462

This research work was carried out to determine the suitable storage condition of fruit juices that will effectively retain their vitamin C content and pH level. Three different samples of fruits were processed into their respective juices, they were then analyzed to determine the vitamin C content and pH level of each samples, and stored at different storage condition. The samples were then analyzed after every week for one month, and the result shows that vitamin C content reduced by 72.9% at room temperature and 47.9% at refrigeration temperature in Pineapple juice,75.5% at room temperature and 47.2% at refrigeration temperature in Watermelon juice, and 69.4% at room temperature and 55.6% at refrigeration temperature in Pawpaw juice respectively. The analysis also shows that the pH level of the samples were reduced by 17% and 15.0% in Pineapple juice, 22.4% and 20.7% in Watermelon juice, 25.9% and 20.4% in Pawpaw juice at both room temperature and refrigeration temperature storage conditions respectively. Statistical analysis shows that there is no significance difference in term of vitamin C content and pH level between room temperature storage and refrigeration temperature at 5% level significance. It is therefore concluded that, storage of fruit juices at refrigeration temperature condition forms the basis of recommendation of this research.