Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Anti-radical Activity of Five Indigenous Herbal Plants and their Polyherbal Extract

Idakwoji Precious Adejoh, Akuba Ojochegbe Barnabas, Okafor Stephen Chiadikaobi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23974

Aims: This study comparatively evaluated the radical scavenging activity of the methanolic extracts of five indigenous plants, namely- Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae), Phyllantus spp (Euphorbiaceae), Khaya senegalensis (Meliaceae) and Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) and their polyherbal extract referred to as Gingered Polyherbal Tea (GPHT).

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria in July 2015.

Methodology: The extract of each plant and their polyherbal combination were studied for anti-radical activity using 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Hydroxyl ion, Nitric oxide and Super oxide free radical scavenging assays.

Results: The following trend was observed in the anti-radical activity of the extracts: GPHT > Ascorbic acid/Gallic acid> Zingiber officinale> Camellia sinensis> Nauclea latifolia>Khaya senegalensis>Phyllantus spp.

Conclusion: The extracts showed varying levels of anti-radical activity individually and contributed synergistically to the anti-radical activity of their polyherbal extract. This observation could be employed in designing new drug combinations that will provide better therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of many oxidative stress- related diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-obesity and Anti-fatty Liver Effects of Cynara scolymus L. Leaf Extract in Mice under Diet-induced Obesity

Eman M. Abd El Azeem, Barakat Alaa, Zeinab Zakaria

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23807

Objective: In this study, we conducted an animal study to investigate the effect of Cynara leaf extract (CLE) on visceral fat and serum lipid profile in animals fed on high fat diet (HFD). In addition, we focused on gene expression of some lipogenesis and lipolysis enzymes to investigate the anti-obesity and anti- fatty liver mechanism of CLE.

Methods: Thirty male mice Swiss albino strain, at age of six weeks were classified into 3 groups. The first group was kept on standard normal diet and served as healthy control. Other animals received HFD for 4 weeks. These animals were assigned as HFD group and HFD + 5% Cynara scolymus leaf extract (CLE) -treated group.

Results: CLE supplementation significantly reduced both body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight with significant decrease in serum cholesterol, LDL- C and triacylglycerol. While serum HDL-C was significantly increased as compared to HFD group. Moreover, in the histological analysis, CLE improved fatty liver.

Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that CLE up regulate the expression of mRNA of acetyl Co A (ACO) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), in contrast, it suppressed the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene in the liver. While in WAT, the expressions of HSL gene was significantly upregulated at the main time FAS gene was down regulate when compared to HFD group.

Conclusion: These results suggest that CLE exerts anti-obesity and anti-fatty liver effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through suppressing lipogenesis in the liver, stimulating lipolysis in WAT.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Co-administration of Chloroquine Phosphate and Cefuroxime Axetil on Serum Lipids and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats

O. E. Etim, E. J. Akpan, M. I. Akpanabiatu, U. A. Akpan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23362

There is scanty information on the response of biochemical system to the co-administration of anti-malarial drugs and antibiotics. This was what informed the need to undertake the present study. The effects of co-administration of chloroquine (CQ) and cefuroxime (CE) on serum lipids and lipid peroxidation in albino Wistar rats was investigated. Standard reagent kits were used for the assay. The study included assay for the effect of the co-administration of CQ and CE on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipid peroxidation. The result revealed that the level of HDL-C was not affected by the co-administration. Those of TC, TG and LDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) above the value obtained for the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level increased significantly (p<0.05) in group treated with CQ in combination with CE. The present study has revealed that co-administration of chloroquine and cefuroxime tends to raise TC, TG, LDL-C and MDA levels. The result reveals that co-administration of chloroquine and cefuroxime may adversely affect the metabolism of lipids.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Buchholzia coriacea Seeds on Some Biochemical Parameters in Normal and Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Lenka Jessica Lapshak, Luka Carol Domkat, Larfa Simon Nansah

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/24495

Aims: To investigate the effect of oral administration of Buchholzia coriacea aqueous seed extract on blood glucose and other biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and in normal rats.

Study Design: Twenty adult male rats were used, rats were divided into four groups of five rats each (Groups A, B, C and D) in which group A (Diabetic control) and group B (Diabetic treated) were induced with diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight while group C (Normal control) and D (Normal treated) were normal groups in which diabetes was not induced. The extract was administered orally to groups B and D at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight for 7 days after the confirmation of the effect of alloxan in the induced groups. The Buchholzia coriacea aqueous seed extract was screened for phytochemicals. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed by decapitation, blood was collected and used for the biochemical analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria. Between August and December 2014

Results: The administration of Buchholzia coriacea seed extract caused significant (p = 0.05) reduction in the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, increased protein levels in both treated and normal groups, but had no significant ameliorative nor adverse effect on liver and kidney parameters (liver enzymes, urea, creatinine and electrolytes levels) of both normal and diabetic rats administered the extract.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the aqueous extract of Buchholzia coriacea seed possess hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties and may therefore be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus at the above dosage and treatment period with no observed adverse effect on the liver and kidney.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of the Modulatory Roles of Thieno [2,3-c] Pyrazole Compounds Versus the Toxicity of 4-Nonylphenol in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Alaa El-Din H. Sayed, Nasser Sayed Abou Khalil

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/24384

The endocrine disrupting substances represent major challenge to aquaculture and the most widespread one is 4-nonylphenol (4-NP). Pyrazole possess an interesting broad spectrum of pharmacological actions. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of five novel thieno [2,3-c] pyrazole compounds in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) on the hematotoxic and electrolyte disruptor influences of 4-NP. The hemato-electrolyte disturbance induced by 4-NP was well proved by many examined endpoints. On the other hand, thienopyrazole compounds exhibited the ability to modulate the previous toxicological impact by different levels based on the modification in structures and properties. This study provided insight into the endless therapeutic treasures of newly synthesized complexes, and a driving force for its application on the other clinically relevant problems in fish.