Open Access Short communication

Comparative Hepatotoxic Effects of Aqueous and Phenolic Extracts of Avocado (Persea americana) Seed in Wistar Albino Rats

Umar Abdullahi Zakariya, Umar Aliyu Umar, Sabiu Murtala Dambazau, Abdullahi Sulaiman

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23196

Aims: The present study was conducted to determine hepatotoxic effect of aqueous and phenolic extracts of Persea americana seed.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. November 2012 to January 2013.

Methodology: Wistar albino rats weighing 100 to 110 g were divided into four groups. The aqueous and phenolic extracts were administered orally for 21 days, at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected for the assessment of serum marker enzymes, while the liver tissue was used for histopathological Studies.

Results: The serum levels of AST, ALT, and ALP in aqueous and phenolic extracts groups were found to be significantly higher compared to control group. However, group treated with solution of phenol shows no significant pathology. The Liver biopsy of aqueous and phenolic extracts treated rats shows severe degeneration of the hepatocytes when compared with control group, while group treated with solution of phenol shows little or no significant liver damage.

Conclusion: The result suggested hepatotoxic effect of aqueous and phenolic extracts of Avocado seed, therefore administration of P. americana seed extracts may contribute significantly to liver damage, at higher dose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiplasmodial/Antimalarial Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium on the Activity of Catalase in Plasmodium berghei-Parasitized Mice

Ekpo Daniel Emmanuel, Ekanemesang Udoudo Moses

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/24341

Aim: The study was designed to examine the effect of ethanollic leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Gongronema latifolium (GL) on serum catalase activity in mice exposed to malaria parasite (Plasmodium berghei) infection.

Study Design: Forty (40) adult mice weighing 26-30 g were divided into eight (8) Groups of five (5) mice each. Group 1 and 2 served as the normal control (NC) and parasitized control (PC) respectively, both of which received placebo treatment. All the other groups were parasitized and treated with the extracts via oro-gastric intubation for seven (7) days. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of VA respectively. Group 5 and 6 were treated with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of GL respectively. Group 7 and 8 were treated with combination of VA and GL at 100 mg/kg of VA+100 mg/kg of GL and 150 mg/kg of VA+50 mg/kg of GL respectively. Serum catalase activity was determined from blood samples obtained on the 8th day after fasting overnight.

Results: The result showed that the administration of the extracts significantly (p<0.05) lowered catalase activity when compared with Group 2 except that of group 4 (200 mg/kg of VA) and 5 (100 mg/kg of GL). There was a significantly lower concentration of catalase in the groups treated with the combination therapy of VA and GL when compared to the untreated Group 2.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that both extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium had a positive effect on serum catalase activity on parasitized mice. However, combination of both extracts gave a much positive effect. Hence we tend to draw conclusion that combination of both extract may serve as a useful intervention in the management and treatment of malaria parasite infection and would contribute to the development of potential antimalarial drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Mineral Analysis of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Napoleona imperialis (mkpodu)

Etim Okon Effiom, Ben Inemesit Okon, Ita Roseline Okon

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23352

Napoleona imperialis is an evergreen non-timber plant that has wound healing and antihypertensive effect. The study was undertaken to evaluate the proximate and elemental analyses of the leaf of Napoleona imperialis. The mineral elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, equipped with air acetylene flame; spectrophotometer and flame photometer. The proximate analyses were carried out using standard methods. The proximate analysis of the leaves of Napoleona imperialis showed that it contained moisture 3.78%, crude fiber 8.03%, crude fat 6.45%, ash 5.2%, crude protein 13.13% and carbohydrate 63.44%. The mineral analysis of the leaves showed sodium (16.5947 ppm), potassium (3.3134 ppm), calcium (15.000 ppm), iron               (8.350 ppm), copper (0.703 ppm) and zinc (8.0455 ppm). The presence of minerals like Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn in concentrations admissible for human consumption Vis-a’-Vis World Health Organization Standard suggests its beneficial effect in enhancing metabolic processes via enzyme activation hence its ethno-medicinal potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Aqueous Root Bark and Seed Extracts of Azadirachta indica in the Treatment of Ticks (Hyalomma spp) in vitro

Nwosu Chukwukere Okwudili, Ugwu Chidiebere Emmanuel, Mbaya Albert, Maduka Hugh Chima Clifford, Okpogba Aloysius Ngozi, Yusuf Amina Bulama

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/24094

The acaricidal effect of the aqueous extracts of neem (Azadrichta indica) seed and root bark on tick (Hyalomma spp) was investigated. Adult Hyalomma ticks of both sexes were incubated in aqueous extracts of neem seed and root bark. The extracts were made in varying concentrations (100%, 50% and 25%) with sand and sawdust media. Survival rate of the ticks in the extracts were monitored daily by recording of the ratio of dead to live ticks. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. The results showed the presence of tannins, saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatanins and cardiac glycosides. Both extracts contained alkaloids, phlobatanins and cardiac glycosides. Tannin occurred in larger concentration in the root bark than in the seed whereas the seed contained larger quantities of anthraquinones and saponins than the root bark. The results further showed that the seed and root extracts of neem have acaricidal effect against the ticks through death of the ticks incubated in them. However, the root bark extract was more effective than the seed extract as it produced higher killing effects of the ticks incubated in it.

Therefore, the aqueous extracts of the root bark and seeds of Azadirachta indica can be used as commercial acaricide to control ticks and tick infestation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Elemental Composition and Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Leaf Extract and Stem Bark Extract of Crateva adansoni

Hugh Clifford Chima Maduka, Emmanuel Iroha Akubugwo, Oluwale Olorunnipe, Aloysius Ngozika Okpogba, Ann Amaka Maduka, Celestine Uzoma Aguoru, Chidiebere Emmanuel Ugwu, Charles Chijioke Dike, Peter Nnamdi Ogueche

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/21822

Objective: To investigate the elemental and Phytochemical components of aqueous extracts of the leaves and stem bark of Crateva adansonii.

Methods: The elemental analysis was done using atomic absorption analysis with Perkin Elmer Analyst atomic flame spectrophotometer (FAAS) 400 models, India. Carbohydrate, anthraquinone, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids and phlobatanins were determined using known standard methods.

Results: The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of saponins and flavanoids in both the leaf and stem bark extracts. Tannins, alkaloids, steroids and terpenoids were present only in the leaf extracts, while carbohydrate was found only in the stem bark extracts. Anthraquinone and phlobatanins were absent in both the leaf and stem bark extract. The anions and cations            detected include sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+) iron (Fe2+), lead (Pb2+), cobalt (Co2+), lithium (Li+), chloride (Cl-) and sulphate (SO42-) ions, suggesting that the plant contains pharmacologically active ingredients as well as metal cations found important in antioxidative stress roles. The results gotten from elemental analysis were subjected to statistical analysis using students “T”-test statistical method at P<0.05 level of significance to find out which of the extracts that contained higher concentrations of the above elements (cations and anions). The statistical software used is IBM SPSS statistic version 21. Statistical analysis done showed that sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and phosphorous ions were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the stem bark extract compared to the leaf extract. Calcium, magnesium and manganese were significantly higher in the leaf extracts than in the stem extracts.

Conclusion: The results show that Crateva adansonii contains microelements which include Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn, Cu2+, CL-, SO42- and phytochemical constituents which include alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and terpenoids. The plants therefore may have some therapeutic values.