Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Oxidative Balance in Rats Maintained on Ripe Musa paradisiaca Peel

A. S. Idoko, N. Lawal, L. E. Iloun

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23853

The use of ripe Musa paradisiaca peel as a replacement for corn starch is promising as the search for alternative inexpensive feed sources are sought to reduce the cost of live stock production. However, the possible long term effects of the consumption remained unclear. This research was designed to investigate the oxidative balance in rats maintained on the ripe Musa paradisiaca peel. The peel was mixed with other ingredients to formulate four diets replacing cornstarch at 0%, 50%, 70% and 100%. Twenty-four weanling albino rats (33.43 g±4.41 g) were divided into four groups of equal average weight. The groups were then assigned to the four diets. Diet C (Control) contained 100% inclusion level of cornstarch. Diets P100, P70 and P50 respectively contained 100%, 70% and 50% inclusion levels of the peel. The rats were fed on their respective diets and water ad libitum. Growth response of the rats to the diets was computed. Superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and concentration of malondialdehyde in some organs of the rats were also evaluated using standard methods. The results revealed that feed intake, feed conversion ratio and average weekly weight gain were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the test diets. Diet based on 100% inclusion level caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and significant (p<0.05) increase in malondialdehyde concentration. Diet based on 70% inclusion level did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the superoxide dismutase activity, but caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in catalase activity and increase in malondialdehyde concentration. All the studied biochemical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by 50% inclusion level of the peel. It is our conclusion from the findings that up to 50% replacement of corn starch by the peel is safe for long term feeding of the animals and is as such recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Can Serum Osteocalcin Level be Used as a Marker to Assess Bone Remodeling Status in Hyperthyroidism?

K. Navikala, K. C. Vasudha, Pramila Kalra, K. Radhika

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23450

Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the serum osteocalcin levels before and during treatment in hyperthyroidism and to compare with healthy controls.

Study Design: Case control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Department of Endocrinology. M.S. Ramaiah medical college, Bangalore. December 2014 to May 2015.

Methodology: Twenty five newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients, Twenty five patients who are euthyroid during treatment and Twenty five healthy controls in the age group of 20-50yrs were enrolled in this study. Serum T3, T4, TSH were assayed by electrochemiluminescence and serum Osteocalcin was estimated by ELISA. Kruskal wallis test was used to compare T3, T4, TSH, osteocalcin and calcium levels among three groups. Post Hoc test was used for multiple comparisons between two groups.

Results: Using Kruskal wallis test, a significant difference for T3, T4, TSH and osteocalcin values was observed among the different groups (p <0.001). Post Hoc test for multiple comparisons between two groups revealed that osteocalcin levels were significantly high in newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients compared to controls (p=0.02) indicating high bone turnover. There was also a significant difference in osteocalcin levels between newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and patients who are euthyroid on treatment (p= 0.04) indicating values decreased on treatment. ROC analysis showed serum osteocalcin is a good marker for assessing bone remodeling status in hyperthyroidism.

(Area under curve= 86.6 and p value = 0.001)

Conclusion: Serum osteocalcin can be used to assess bone remodeling status in newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism and to identify residual bone resorption in the euthyroid state during treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Opium Addiction on Some Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Rats

Hatem Abdel Moniem Ahmed, Shaaban M. Ahmed, E. H. El Gawish, Alaa M. Alanwar, M. H. Ibrahem

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23301

These days, opium consumption has increased among people. Opium latex contains approximately 12% of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed, chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opiates for medicinal use and for the illegal drug trade. This study was carried out to study the effect of opium on biochemical parameter changes of kidney and liver in experimental diabetic animals, due to opium abuse. Twenty four albino rats were divided into three groups and traditional opium given orally (10 mg / kg B w) to all experimental rats except the control negative group, for 90 days. Diabetes mellitus was induced in adult male albino rats, using intra-peritoneal injection of 120 mg/kg BW. Blood glucose, Serum insulin, Total protein, Urea, Creatinine, Alanine aminotrasferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Triglycerides (TGs), Total cholesterol, were measured. The data showed that, there was a decrease in levels of serum total protein, ALT, AST cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic addicted animals compared to non-addicted diabetic animals, while creatinine and urea in addicted diabetic animals were higher. The results showed that, opium increase serum insulin and decreases serum glucose, but not significant, this due to metabolic disorders in diabetic animals. These results proved that opium reduces blood glucose in diabetic animals, but the mechanism of this effect is unclear.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cystatin C, Age and Gender in Healthy African Black Adults: Ivorian Exemple

E. S. Yayo, J. L. Konan, M. Aye-Yayo, V. Gbago, A. Emieme, A. Ake-Edjeme, H. Ahibo, M. L. Hauhouot-Attoungbre, A. Gnionsahé, D. Monnet

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23293

Background: On account of the limitations of creatinine, attention has focused in recent years on cystatin C, a small protein, to be the best marker of renal function evaluation. However data by race, particularly among African black populations are rare or missing.

Aim of this study was to determine in general Ivorian population, usual values of serum cystatin C according to age and gender.

Materials and Methods: The study included 150 black healthy adult subjects, successively recruited at the National Blood Transfusion Center (CNTS) of Abidjan. Serum cystatin C was determined using particle-enhanced immunoassay method (PETIA).

Results: Serum cystatine C ranged from 0.43 to 1.45 mg/L with a confidence interval 0.87 to 0.91 mg/L. The averages are 0,92 +/- 0,12 mg/L in men versus 0,87 +/- 16 mg/L in women. After 50 years, concentrations are 0,94 +/- 0,19 mg/L.

Conclusion: It appears that the values of serum cystatin found in Ivoirian black peoples vary by age and gender. They are different from standards described in Caucasians.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Glucose, Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress Markers of Salt-induced Metabolic Syndrome Rats Administered Antioxidant Rich Nutraceutical

N. Lawal, A. S. Idoko, A. Z. Sullubawa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23844

Metabolic syndrome is indeed a high risk condition involving obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The study aim to formulate an antioxidant rich nutraceutical from locally available foodstuff (onion, garlic, ginger, tomato, lemon, palm oil, water melon seeds) and investigate their effects on body weight, serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin and oxidative stress markers in salt induced metabolic syndrome rats. The rats were placed on 8% salt diet for 6 weeks and then supplementation and treatment with nutraceutical and nifedipine in the presence of salt diet for additional 4 weeks. Feeding rats with salt diet for 6 weeks increased body weight of the salt-loaded rats relative to control. Significant (P<0.001) increase in serum blood glucose and lipid profile, and decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was observed in salt-loaded rats as compared with control. Supplementation with nutraceutical lowered body weight of the salt-loaded rats and significant (P<0.001) decrease in the serum blood glucose, lipid profile, malonyldialdehyde (MDA), insulin levels, insulin resistance, and increased HDL-C and antioxidant indices was observed. The study suggests that the nutraceuticals are useful in reversing most of the component of metabolic syndrome.