Open Access Original Research Article

Amelioratory Effect of Dorema glabrum on Diazinon-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver

Parisa Sistani, Mina Adampourezare, Gholamreza Dehghan, Leila Mehdizadeh Fanid

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23093

Introduction: A wide number of pesticides, including highly persistent organophosphorous compounds, such as diazinon (DZN) have deteriorating effect on fauna and flora by inducing oxidative stress. DZN induces cell damage by producing free radicals and reactive oxygen species. In addition to the antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the liver tissue, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been employed in the toxicity of organophosphate insecticides (OPIs) and the level of lipid peroxidation was analyzed. The present study was designed to explore the ameliorative characteristics of D. glabrum against the subchronic impact of DZN on such oxidative damage markers as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the antioxidant defense system (ADS) existing in the liver of male Wistar rats.

Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats randomly divided into four groups including a control group, and three experimental groups. Two of three experimental groups received different doses of D. glabrum (40 and 80 mg/kg) as pre-treatment for 21 days along with DZN (100 mg/kg) that injected intraperitoneally in the last day of D. glabrum usage, and one group received only DZN (100 mg/kg).

Results: Compared with the control group, we noticed significantly high levels of LPO and the low antioxidant defenses, like free radical scavenging enzymes viz., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in DZN-treated group. Considering the hepatic toxicity of DZN, evident changes were also noticed in endogenous antioxidant enzyme along with high LPO levels. In rats supplemented with D. glabrum as well as treated with DZN, hepatic specific marker enzymes were restored to normalcy which otherwise was lowered in the DZN-treated rats. The obtained results revealed that the oxidative stress of DZN-treated rats is diminished when D. glabrum is co-treated with DZN. This co-treatment may also act as a putative protective agent against DZN-induced liver tissue injury.

Open Access Original Research Article

Minimizing Bioavailability of Fluoride through Addition of Calcium-magnesium Citrate or a Calcium and Magnesium-containing Vegetable to the Diets of Growing Rats

Aweke Kebede, Nigussie Retta, Cherinet Abuye, Susan J. Whiting, Melkitu Kassaw, Tesfaye Zeru, Meseret Woldeyohannes, Marian K. Malde

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23693

Introduction: Fluorosis is a public health problem in Ethiopia. Fluoride absorption may be decreased by dietary divalent cations which form insoluble complexes with the fluoride ion.

Aim: This study aimed to assess the effect of dietary calcium-magnesium citrate or Moringa stenopetala dry leaf on apparent absorption of fluoride in animals.

Samples: Animals (14 weeks) were on fluoridated/non-fluoridated water and calcium and magnesium supplemented diet.

Study Design: Rats received fluoridated or non-fluoridated (control) water (10 mg/L) with or with out calcium magnesium citrate (0.5 mg) or moringa stenopetala dry leaf powder(0.1 g) blended with daily ration.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of food science and nutrition research, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, 2014.

Methods: Twelve female Wistar rats of similar age (14 weeks) and weight (186.7±5.4 g) were placed in metabolic cages for 42 consecutive days and given one of 4 treatments: corn-soya blend (CSB control); CSB and fluoridated water (10 mg/L F); CSB, fluoridated water (10mg F/L) and calcium-magnesium citrate (0.5 mg); CSB, fluoridated water (10 mgF/L) and Moringa stenopetala (0.1 g). Urine and faeces were collected weekly.

Results: Supplementation of calcium-magnesium or Moringa stenopetala leaf significantly (p < 0.05) reduced urinary fluoride and increased fecal fluoride level, indicating less absorption of fluoride.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence for a dietary approach in reducing fluorosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adipocytokines, Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand, and Midkine: Intricate Biomarkers Network Involved in Pathogenesis and Activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Egyptians

Nema Ali Soliman, Walaa Arafa Keshk, Radwa Mostafa Elkhouly

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23824

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease in which a heterogeneous course and different pathogenic mechanisms are implicated in the development of chronic inflammation and subsequent joint damage. Early diagnosis and timely detection of RA progression are of global challenges. However, the lack of sensitivity of the currently available biomarkers has impaired the ability to implement potentially effective therapy in a timely manner. Adipocytokines such as adiponectin, and visfatin have recently emerged as pro-inflammatory mediators involved in the pathophysiology of RA, however they still a matter of debate.

Aim: This current study went further to investigate the roles of Adipocytokines, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) levels and midkine (MDK) gene expression axis in patients with early untreated RA and their implication in disease activity monitoring.

Methodology: Forty newly diagnosed untreated patients with RA (20 patients with active RA and 20 patients with inactive RA) in addition to twenty apparently healthy age, sex and race matched controls were enrolled in this study. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), adiponectin, visfatin and RANKL levels by immunoassay and MDK mRNA level in peripheral blood by real-time PCR were assessed.

Results: TNF-α, adiponectin, visfatin and RANKL levels as well as peripheral blood MDK mRNA levels were significantly increased in patients RA with higher values were for active RA with significant positive correlations to disease activity score 28 (DAS-28).

Conclusion: Adipocytokines, RANKL and MDK axis has a role in RA pathogenesis, early diagnosis and disease activity. These results may open new avenues for developing preventive and therapeutic strategies for RA.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Additives and Temperature on the Velocity of Hydrolysis of Raw Starch with Human Salivary  - amylase

Udema Ikechukwu Iloh

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22984

Aim: The research was carried out to determine the effect of increasing concentration of calcium chloride at different temperatures and a mixture of aqueous ethanol and calcium chloride at 37°C on the activity of human salivary a – amylase (HSaA) and to characterize the effects of the additives (co – solutes) separately, and as a mixture, in terms of activation and thermodynamic parameters.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration: Research Division of Ude International Concepts Limited (RC 862217) B. B. Agbor and Owa Sec Sch, Owa Oyibu, Delta, Nigeria. The research spanned a period of six months.

Methodology: Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was used. Controls were free from additives while the experimental tests reaction mixture contained either a single additive or a mixture of additives. The additives are different sources of ethanol and calcium chloride.

Results: The values of Gibbs free energy of activation (DG#), are 75.90±0.14 kJ/mol, and 77.28±0.15 kJ/mol, in the absence and presence of the salt respectively. The enthalpies of hydrolysis of the starch are 20.18±0.27 kJ/mol and 9.58±0.35 kJ/mol in the presence and absence of the salt respectively. The positive m – value ((113±3)´104 J/mol.M) being lower in the presence of local gin (LG) in the reaction mixture than m – value ((121.5±0.05)´104 J/mol.M) in the presence of Lord’s dry gin (BG), implies that LG is a stronger alcoholic beverage than BG.

Conclusion: The increase in activation parameter resulted in a decrease in activity due to extra stabilizing effect of excess calcium ion. The hydrolysis of starch is enthalpically driven in the absence of the salt, while entropic factor is the case in the presence of the salt. The presence of calcium chloride opposed the inhibiting effect of lower concentration (« 90% (V/V)) of ethanol.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Mathematical Model of Self-oscillations of Kai Proteins in Incubation Solution

Shahin K. Bayramov, Kamandar M. Yaqubov

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22348

An autocatalytic mathematical model of self-oscillations in in vitro solutions of Kai proteins (KaiA, KaiB, KaiC) and ATP is offered. The model describes the main processes in the solution of Kai - proteins, namely the process of a phosphorylation / defosforillyation of KaiC protein which is accelerated by influence of KaiA and is inhibited by KaiB protein influence. By the method of the metabolic control analysis it is shown that the frequency (period) and amplitudes of self-oscillations of the components of Kai- proteins are temperature compensated.