Open Access Original Research Article

Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group in India (DIPSI) – A Novel Criterion to Diagnose GDM

Havilah Polur, K. Durga Prasad, Pandit Vinodh Bandela, Hindumathi ., Shaik Hussain Saheb

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22624

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance recognised first only during pregnancy. Women with GDM are more prone to future diabetes and other maternal and fetal complications.  Most of the people in India reside in rural areas and an Universal screening is required in such settings which is simple, convenient and economical. Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group India (DIPSI) has recommended a modified 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to diagnose GDM. Very few studies are available to show the effectiveness of DIPSI. Aim: Our aim is to compare and correlate WHO and DIPSI CRITERIA in diagnosing GDM.

Materials and Methods: 149  healthy pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of Santhiram General Hospital  underwent 75 g OGTT between 24-28 weeks of pregnancy recommended by WHO. Two venous blood samples and urine samples, one fasting and other 2 hr sample after 75 g glucose load were obtained and analysed. Three days later all of them were made to undergo 75 g OGTT recommended by DIPSI. A single 2 hr blood sample was collected after the load and analysed. Both criteria values are subjected to statistical analysis.

Statistical Analysis: The mean and S.D of age and parity, BMI, 2 hr plasma glucose were calculated. Comparision and correlation of diagnostic criteria of  GDM by WHO and DIPSI were analyzed by Fischer exact test (chi- square test) and significance done  using Statistical analysis using SPSS software (version 20) and MedCalc (version 12.7.0).

Results: Out of 149 pregnant women who underwent screening for GDM, 63 were diagnosed to have GDM. The mean age and S.D of nonGDM and GDM pregnant women were 22.7±3.5 vs 24.35±4.77 year. The mean 2nd hr glucose values and S.D of nonGDM and GDM cases were 98±14 vs154.32±8.7mg/dl. WHO identified 63 GDM cases and DIPSI identified 58 GDM cases i.e. 92% of GDM cases identified by WHO were found to be identified by DIPSI. Out of them 52 women were diagnosed as GDM by both WHO and DIPSI. We compared the correlation of DIPSI with WHO 2ndhr sample for diagnosing GDM by Fischer exact t-test. P-value and its significance is calculated. Chi squared test equals to 75.181(P<0.0001) which is extremely significant.

Conclusion: DIPSI has all those qualities of a screening test. It is simple, single, convenient, economical, can be used as both diagnostic as well as screening test and with good perinatal outcome. So can be used in routine laboratory to diagnose GDM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimizing the Aggregation Propensity of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies against Cancer and Autoimmune Diseases: A Computational Study

Anna-Isavella G. Rerra, Vasiliki P. Grimanelli, Nikos C. Papandreou, Stavros J. Hamodrakas

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23216

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent the most promising and rapidly growing class of therapeutic compounds for treating a wide variety of human chronic and acute diseases.  Despite their benefits, a major drawback in the exploitation of antibodies is their tendency to form aggregates.  As a result, severe immunological reactions in patients have been recorded.

In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of a set of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies to form aggregates. We selected antibodies that have all been approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and are indicated for the treatment of various types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. The AMYLPRED 2 consensus method was used to predict ‘aggregation-prone’ regions on the surface of these proteins.

These regions are conserved and observed in almost all monoclonal antibodies commercially available. Considering the amino acid sequences of these antibodies, common groups of ‘aggregation-prone’ regions were identified, called clusters. We successfully reduced or even fully eliminated ‘aggregation-prone’ groups (clusters) by specific ‘mutations’ of the amino acids with exposed side chains. This information may be useful in future studies of monoclonal antibodies by improving existing therapeutic products or by designing novel ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Defatted Soya Flour Supplementation of Wheat Bread Confers Oxidative, Renal, Hepatic and Cardiovascular Protective Effects in Wistar Rats

H. K. Okafor, O. A. T. Ebuehi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22912

Background: The present study was designed to ascertain the effect of supplementation of bread with defatted soy flour on antioxidant, renal, hepatic and cardiovascular status in Wistar rats.

Methods: Hard wheat flour was mixed with high quality defatted soy flour at several ratios: 90:10(w/w), 80:20(w/w), 70:30(w/w), and 60:40 (w/w). The respective ratios of the flour mixtures were mixed with other ingredients and used to bake the wheat-soy bread. The 100% hard wheat flour baked bread was the control. All bread samples were tested for both chemical and sensory characteristics. Forty Wistar rats were randomly given codes and allocated to 5 different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on the 100% wheat breads and soy supplemented bread groups respectively for 28 days and sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Blood was collected through ocular puncture and used for biochemical assays while liver was used for antioxidant assay.

Results: There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the liver levels of antioxidant enzymes: reduced glutathione (GSH),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes in experimental rats liver of wheat-soy bread groups compared to the control group and a significant (p<0.05) reduction in wheat-soy bread groups for lipid peroxidation-malondialdehyde (MAL) compared to non-supplemented group. However, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation biomarker levels of the wheat-soy bread groups were not significantly (p>0.05) different from one another. There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Alanine Phosphatase (ALP) as well as serum levels of lipid biomarkers namely: Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), Cholesterol (CHOL) and Triglycerides (TG)  in wheat-soy bread groups as compared to the wheat bread group (control). However, the serum levels of these lipid biomarkers in all the four wheat-soy bread experimental rat groups were not significantly (p>0.05) different from one another. The serum levels of renal function markers (Total Bilirubin, Creatinine and Urea) as well as protein markers (Total Protein and Albumin) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in wheat-soy bread experimental rat groups compared to wheat bread group but were not significantly (p>0.05) different for the wheat-soy supplemented groups.

Conclusion: Our findings establish the nutritional and health promoting benefits of soy supplemented bread. In addition, it was also deduced that 10% wheat-soy bread gave the bread the best overall quality acceptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Changes and Fatigability in Albino Rats after Oral Administration of Adenosine Triphosphate

Sangappa Virupaxappa Kashinakunti, Sheshidhar Bannale, R. Manjula, Gurupadappa Shantappa Kallaganada, Kavitha Hiremath

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23194

Objective: The study was undertaken to evaluate the biochemical changes and fatigability in albino rats after oral administration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 

Study Design: Animal experimental study.

Place of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Navanagar, Bagalkot-587102, Karnataka, India.

Methods: Twelve Swiss albino rats of either gender weighing between 200 to 300 gm were taken. Animals were grouped randomly into two groups consisting of 6 rats each. Group –I received distilled water (5 ml/kg body weight) and Group-II ATP orally at the dosage of 60mg/kg body weight for 8 days. On 8th day of experiment, all animals were evaluated for extent of physical fatigue by using exhaustive swimming test. The blood samples were collected and blood sugar, urea, uric acid, hsCRP, total cholesterol and triglyceride were measured.

Results: There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum uric acid, blood sugar and urea in Group-  II as compared to Group- I.

Conclusion: Oral administration of ATP may lead to hyperglycaemia, hyperuricemia and dyslipidaemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Levels of Serum Ascorbic Acid in a Population of North Jordan

Fatima-Azzahra Delmani

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/23044

Aim: Total serum vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) concentration was measured in a group of 499 individuals (males and females age range 18-60 years) with different health conditions (diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, pregnancy) and a group of 432 healthy individuals (males and females age range 5-60 years) to assess whether serum vitamin C concentrations are affected (or not) by these medical conditions.

Methodology: Total serum vitamin C concentration was measured by HPLC. Sera were extracted from blood samples collected from a population from a northern part of Jordan.

Results: The total vitamin C concentration in male healthy individuals was found to be 43.6±1.75 μmol/l compared to 23.0±1.7 μmol/l in male smokers, 23.6±1.4 μmol/l in male diabetes and 24.8±2.3 μmol/l in males with high blood pressure. The total vitamin C concentration in female healthy individuals was found to be 47.2±2.1 μmol/l, whereas these concentrations were found to be lower in female smokers with 29±1.5 μmol/l, 28.4±0.8 μmol/l in females with diabetes, 29±1.5 μmol/l in females with high blood pressure, and 30.2±0.9 μmol/l in pregnant women. These values are significantly lower (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Vitamin C absorption by the body is influenced by the health status of the individual. This was clearly shown by the differences between healthy individuals from the test group and those with different health conditions.