Open Access Original Research Article

Biodiesel Production from Selected Used Cooking Oils and Animal Fats and Its Implementation

A. B. M. Sharif Hossain, Mohammed Saad AlEissa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22335

Significance of the Study: Biomass derived bio-fuel is biodegradable, nontoxic, sustainable and substitute for fossil fuel as well as capable of removing emission like CO2, CO, SOx, HC and NOX. It is renewable and outstanding energy resource for the generation of steam and electricity, transportation fuel, manufacturing industries. Biomass (animal and plants based like, fruits, vegetable, crops, fish, chicken and other animal byproducts or waste biomass) can be used               for bioenergy production like biofuel and nanocatalyst for biofuel. Agro waste like animal                 waste biomass can be the sources of biodiesel in the industry. The energy is an important factor                             for the development of social and economic development of any country. In recent years,                    using renewable energy as a reducing agent of environmental pollution has become an important issue in the whole world.

Aim: In this study it is highlighted that biofuel can be produced from from waste cooking oil, fish and chicken byproduct.

Results: The highest yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was found in fish oil (99.8%). However, the 2nd highest yield o biodiesel was found in chicken oil (99.2%). The kinematic viscosity at 40°C accepted the limited value between 1.9 to 6.0 cSt according to the ASTM D445. In addition, TAN value was followed the ASTM D664 standard. Fuel consumption, CO, HC and NOx were lower in fish and chicken biodiesel than palm and sunflower.

Conclusion: The less expensive waste feedstock can be used in the commercial and industrial purposes in future for vast energy supply.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Insertion/Deletion at -2549 is Associated with Retinopathy but not + 405 G/C Polymorphism

Hanaa M. Abdeen, Nadia El-Menshawy, Ziad Tawheed, Nader El-Malky, Abeer M. Khattab

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22421

Background: Retinopathy is a serious ocular complication of diabetes. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is massively unregulated in diabetic retinopathy. The objective of this study was to investigate the G + 405 C polymorphism in the 5′-untranslated region and the I/D polymorphism at the – 2549 position of the promoter region of the VEGF gene in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methodology: In this study, 103 unrelated type 2 diabetic patients and 40 control subjects were involved in a case-control design. Genotyping of the I/D polymorphism at -2549 was analyzed by PCR and the G/C +405 polymorphism by PCR-RFLP.

Results: For +405 G/C polymorphism, there is no statistical significant difference in genotype distribution and allele frequencies in both diabetes groups when compared to control group or to each other. While I/D polymorphism at -2549 shows significant increase in ID genotype distribution in diabetes without and with retinopathy groups versus control group [OR (CI) =3.67 (1.27-10.8) & 5.5 (1.98-15.73) and P =0.01 & <0.001, respectively]. I allele is significantly increased in diabetes without and with retinopathy groups versus control group [OR (CI) = 3.99 (1.8-8.97) & 3.98 (1.84-8.71), respectively and P <0.001 for both]. There is no significant difference in genotype and allele frequencies in both diabetes groups when compared to each other (P =0.59 & 0.99, respectively).

Conclusions: Heterozygous form of I/D polymorphism and I allele at -2549 of VEGF gene might possibly be associated with a higher susceptibility to retinopathy as a complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While, no association was found with VEGF +405 G/C gene polymorphism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Evaluation of Some Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) on the Kidney and Liver of Albino Wistar Rats

O. E. Etim, U. E. Bassey, G. E. Charles, E. E. Sambo, E. J. Akpan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22846

World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as drug of choice for the treatment of malaria in endemic regions of the world. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of therapeutic doses of ACTs: Artesunate (Artesunat®), Artesunate-Mefloquine (Artequin®), Artemether-Lumefantrin (Coartem®) and Dihydroartesiminin-Piperaquine (P-Alaxin®) on the integrity of the liver and kidneys of albino Wistar rats. Thirty (30) albino Wistar rats weighing between 200 g – 280 g were randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 animals per group. Group 1 served as control (CTR) while Group 2 received artesunate (AS) for 5 days. Groups 3, 4 and 5 received therapeutic doses of artequine (AQ), coartem (CT) and p-alaxin (PA) respectively for 3 days. The animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and blood samples obtained through cardiac puncture for biochemical investigations. Serum ALT activity of Groups 2 and 3 were significantly elevated (p<0.05) while Groups 4 and 5 experienced marginal increased. Group 4 also showed significant increase in total bilirubin though it was marginally increased in all other groups when compared to the control. Creatinine levels were marginally increased in all groups while the urea levels were relatively stable across all groups except in Group 3 where significant increase was observed. The results therefore indicate possible hepatic injury and renal toxicity in albino Wistar rats hence the need for caution and proper attention while undergoing malaria treatment with ACTs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carotenoid Levels, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity Variations in Varieties of Citrullus lanatus under Storage at Room Temperature

J. Y. Jr. Hena, D. M. Andala, H. N. Nyambaka, M. P. Nawiri

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22547

Introduction: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are economically burdening and are globally projected to increase deaths upto 75% by 2030. With the cause partly attributed to unhealthy diets, the major contributing factor is production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in biochemical reactions in human cells. Through a dietary approach, this can be countered by carotenoid and phenolic antioxidants in Citrullus lanatus (watermelon). The challenge presented is on the effect of room temperature (RT) storage on the levels of β- carotene, lutein and lycopene carotenoids and phenolics in watermelon. Varieties, of watermelon grown in Mwea, Kenya are reported for their carotenoid levels; antioxidant activity (AA) and total phenolic content (TPC) within 14 days storage period at RT.

Methods: The methods employed were HPLC, FCR and DPPH assay.

Results: The ranges of carotenoid levels were; β-carotene; 0.13±0.03- 3.15±0.02 μg/100 g, lutein; 10357.58±62.98-30573.99±434.40 μg/100 g and lycopene 113.42±0.39-522.76±1.36 μg/100 g. The AA ranged between 3.10±0.04-41.35±0.29 and 59.12±0.15- 79.93±0.18% in fresh and dried watermelons, while the TPC ranged between 266.00±5.00-896.67±7.37 mg/100 g GAE. The effect of storage on the nutritional values was shown by a general decrease on levels of β-carotene, lycopene, AA and TPC while lutein levels increased. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in measurements of carotenoids, AA and TPC between all sample varieties.

Conclusion: Storing watermelons for upto 14 days has both negative and positive implications on the carotenoid and total phenolic levels but clearly reduces the antioxidant activity and hence the effectiveness on the fight against NCDs.

Open Access Review Article

Dysregulation of Signaling Pathways Plays a Role in the Development and Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Ayman Zaky Elsamanoudy, Hatem A. El-Alfy, Moustafa Ahmed Mohamed Neamat-Allah, Dina Abd el Daim Ahmed Ibrahim, Raymonde Hanna Assaf

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22158

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common solid malignancy worldwide and causes more than 600,000 deaths annually. Many risk factors predispose to HCC, these risk factors may present individually or collectively depending on the environmental situations. The risk factors for HCC include hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcoholism, aflatoxin (AF), schistosomiasis and some hereditary diseases as haemochromatosis and haemophilia. Certain key regulatory signaling pathways integrated in the pathogenesis of HCC such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and Notch signaling pathway. Dysregulation of different signaling pathways at any level including the receptors and downstream signaling pathway components represent a central protumorigenic principle in human hepatocarcinogenesis and this dysregulation can be targeted for new therapeutic modalities for HCC.

Aim of the Work: The aim of the present work was to study the recently discussed signaling pathways integrated in development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the high risk groups, and how genetic alterations in theses signaling pathways is a potentiating factor for HCC from the year 2000 until now. New diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for that disease could be provided by targeting these dysregulated signaling pathways.

Conclusion: Finally, it could be concluded that: 1) There are multiple mechanisms underlying the hepatocarcinogenesis and by these mechanisms, early diagnosis for HCC could be possible.  2) Understanding the signaling pathways dysregulated in high risk groups for HCC may provide new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.