Introduction: A wide number of pesticides such as diazinon (DZN) have deteriorating effect on fauna and flora by inducing oxidative stress and cell damage. The aim of current study was to investigate the protective effect of D. glabrum against the subchronic effect of DZN on serum urea and creatinine, oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the antioxidant defense system (catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in the kidney of male Wistar rats.
Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups including a control group, and three experimental groups. Two of three experimental groups received different doses of D. glabrum (40 and 80 mg/kg) as pre-treatment for 21 days along with DZN (100 mg/kg) that injected intraperitoneally in the last day of D. glabrum usage, and one group received only DZN (100 mg/kg).
Results: The levels of LPO, urea, creatinine, and the decreased antioxidant defenses, like free radical scavenging enzymes viz., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) significantly increased in DZN-treated group as compared to control group. Distinctly increased LPO levels, with alterations in endogenous antioxidant enzyme were evident in nephrotoxicity of DZN. Specific marker enzymes were restored to normalcy in rats supplemented with D. glabrum following treatment with DZN which otherwise was decreased in the DZN-treated rats.
Conclusion: The obtained results revealed that the oxidative stress of rats treated via DZN can be decreased if it is co-treated by D. glabrum with DZN. In addition, this co-treatment might serve a putative protective agent against kidney damage generated by DZN.
Aims: To purify and characterize the smallest lectin from Datura innoxia (DiL9) and to evaluate its antimicrobial application potential.
Study Design: Protein purification and characterization using biochemical and biophysical techniques. MALDI-MS/MS for peptide mass finger printing. In vitro assay of antimicrobial activity.
Place and Duration of Study: Biochemical Sciences Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India, From Jan 2014 to July 2015.
Methodology: Dried Datura seeds were taken as source of lectin and purified using ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatographic techniques. The rabbit erythrocytes were used for the study of hemagglutinating activity. Structural properties were studied using Fluorescence and Circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. The studied lectin was also examined for its antimicrobial activity using agar disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated using microdilution method.
Results: The lectin was purified from dried seeds of Datura innoxia. It was characterized as a chito-specific glycoprotein with 4% neutral carbohydrate content and molecular weight of 9 kDa. Circular dichroism and fluorescence studies showed it to be structurally different from other known lectins isolated from Datura. Protein was found to be highly thermostable with sugar binding capacity spread over a broad pH range (1-12), and showed resistance to effects of organic solvents, chemical denaturation and proteolytic digestion. DiL9 also demonstrated antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, more effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus with MIC values at 0.325 and 0.15 mg ml-1, respectively.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that the lectin purified from D. innoxia is a glycoprotein and agglutinates pronase treated rabbit erythrocytes. The lectin is highly thermostable with respect to its structure and activity at all denaturing conditions, also showed significant antibacterial activity. This data also supports the fact of its traditional use in folk or alternative medicines for treatment of bacterial infections.
In the present study, Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was synthesized from commercially available 3,4-dimethoxytoluene, butanediol and penta acetyl glucose. This includes bromination, alkylation, glycosylation, deacetylation and demethylation reactions to yield the interested title compound (SDG), further the assignment of the chemical structure of the synthetic SDG was performed with IR, MS-TOF, 1H and 13C NMR. The antibacterial property of the synthetic SDG was investigated against seven different Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The results of the present study proved that SDG can be obtained with good yield (56.2%) under this scheme. Moreover, it exerts an exceptional antibacterial activity where it showed maximum zone of inhibition with 30 and 27.3 mm against E. coli and minimum 7 and 6.1 mm against S. pyogens and S. typhimurium in agar well and disk diffusion respectively. It also showed maximum activity (18 mm at MIC 200 ppm) against S. typhimurium, while minimum inhibitory activity was 4 mm with MIC at 300 ppm against S. pyogens. The scheme of synthesis was found to be an efficient method and the synthetic SDG was also proved to possess a broad spectrum of activity against a panel of bacteria responsible for causing most common diseases.
Aims: To evaluate serum sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus and sulphur in patients with type II DM and compare with non-diabetic subjects.
Study Design: A cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti and Federal Medical Centre, Ido Ekiti, Ekiti State, between April 2013 and February 2014.
Methodology: This study was conducted on 150 subjects, out of which 100 were type II diabetes mellitus patients and 50 were non diabetic (control) subjects. Glucose level was determined by Glucose oxidase –Peroxidase method, serum calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride concentrations were measured using Biolyte Spin 6, Full Automated Electrolyte Analyzer while magnesium was analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Phosphorus concentrations was determined by spectrophotometer using BioSystem reagent kit specific for phosphorus and Sulphur concentrations were measured using auto analyzer.
Results: The results showed that sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium were significantly lower (P˂.001) in diabetic subjects when compared with the control subjects whereas the mean sulphur concentration was significantly higher (P˂.001) in diabetic subjects when compared with the non-diabetic (control) subjects.
Conclusion: This study showed Impair metabolism of macro minerals in diabetic group which result in variations in the levels of these minerals in diabetic male and female as well as in different diabetic age groups when compare with non-diabetic group.
The effect of boiling, steaming and microwaving on proximate and mineral compositions of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves were investigated. Standard methods of analyses were applied for the determinations of selected parameters. Results obtained indicated that at P<0.05 confidence level no significant losses in the values of proximate composition occurred, except for protein and carbohydrate. Decrease in protein contents were 18.36, 13.54 and 20.36% for steaming, boiling and microwaving respectively. Carbohydrate content decrease as follows: steaming (15.44%), boiling (18.35%), and microwaving (2.53%). The percentage reduction in nitrogen content on applying the three cooking methods were 1.10, 0.72 and 0.38% for steaming, boiling and microwaving respectively. Results showed that percentage decrease in P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, and Fe was highest for boiling relative to other methods of processing. The study recommended microwaving as the most appropriate method for processing T. occidental leaves for optimum nutritional benefit.