Open Access Minireview Article

Adipose Tissue: A Regulator for Obesity and Its Complications

Shaik Rahiman, Tarek H El-Metwally, Divya Shrivastava

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/18221

Adipose tissue is a key player in whole body metabolism and excess adipose tissue poses a major risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In response to nutritional overload, de novo adipocyte differentiation can serve as an adaptive mechanism by increasing the storage capacity of adipose tissue and maintaining normal adipocyte function. This in turn prevents systemic lipid overload, which is a major cause for insulin resistance. Adipose tissue is of two types; the fat storing white adipose tissue and the thermogenic brown adipose tissue. While the former is implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, the latter is a physiological anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic through adaptive thermogenesis by uncouplers proteins. Obesity results from the imbalanced energy intake for expenditure with excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue. Obesity is associated with numerous metabolic disorders, including hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, osteoarthritis, infertility and certain types of cancer. Obesity is associated with chronic subclinical inflammation in which the metabolism of adipose tissue plays an important role. The adipose tissue is an endocrine organ which has a fundamental role in metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular homeostatic regulation through lipogenesis, lipolysis, steroidogeneis, and secretion of several biologically active adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines with diverse protein structures and functions. This review article will mainly focus on the pathophysiological changes of adipose tissue fat during obesity in relation to energy expenditure towards prevention or development of obesity and its complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypolipidemic Activity of Fermented Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Gruel (Ogi) in Hypercholesterolemic Rats (Rattus nervegicus)

Solomon Anjuwon Laleye, Babatunde Idowu Aderiye, Oluwole Moses David

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/19659

Background: Fermented gruel (Ogi) has been reported to have high lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven probiotic properties. This fermented food has also has different therapeutic usages.

Objective: The activities of fermented sorghum (Ogi) on induced hypercholesterolemia in albino rats were investigated.

Materials and Methods: The LAB strains were isolated from traditionally fermented sorghum gruel Ogi. Also the ability of the isolates to tolerate bile and produced bile salt hydrolase was also determined. The hypolipidemic activity of fermented gruel (Ogi) with and without LAB strains in hypercholesterolemic rats was determined using standard methods.

Results: The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count in sorghum Ogi ranged between 5. 0792 log10 CFU/g and 5.6990 log10 while the average values of pH and titratable acidity (TTA) were 3.8 and 0.38 respectively. There was no significant difference between the weights of the animals in the control group (Basal Diet) and the experimental groups (at p<0.05). The mean values of the low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDLC) in the rats were 188.60±7.27 mg/dl in the animals fed with HLF while the least value was recorded in the Basal diet supplanted with Ogi (BD+Ogi) (110.80±26.93 mg/dl). The mean high density lipoproteins cholesterol in the serum of the rats in cholesterol free feed supplemented with BD+Ogi diet group was the highest (52.600 mg/dl). The amount of the total lipid in the animal fed with high lipid diet (HLF) was significantly higher than the  amount in the organs of the animals feed with diets containing BD+Ogi, HLF+ L. lactis and HLF+ L. brevis (at α = 0.05). In decreasing order, the amount of the glycerides in high lipid feed diets supplemented with Ogi, Lactobacillus lactis and L. brevis. The mean value of the Aspartate transaminase in the animals in Basal Diet group was higher at the commencement of the experiment (275.45±34.43 IU/L).while the level of the alanine transaminase was not significantly different (at p< 0.05). The histo-pathological micrograph of the various organs revealed the hypolipidemic potential activity of fermented sorghum.

Conclusion: The diets supplemented with the fermented food showed better activity against hypercholesterolemia in the rat groups than their microbial isolates. It would therefore be safe to recommend these foods to individuals with this disease situation and those with incidence of coronary heart disease in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

LH/FSH, BMI and Clinical Profile in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Correlative Study

Hifsa Mobeen, Hamdan Hamid, Almina ShafiqZ, Muhammad Adil, Muhammad Kashif, Noshin Wasim Yousuf

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/21676

Background and Objectives: Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOS) is probably the most prevalent endocrinological disorder affecting females and is the most common cause of menstrual disturbance during the reproductive age. It is characterized by polycystic ovaries on ultrasound and/or clinical and biochemical signs and symptoms of hyperandrogenism and/or oligo- anovulation. Therefore, this study was designed to determine relationship among LH/FSH ratio, BMI and the clinical profile of females suffering from PCOS.

Materials and Methods: Blood samples from 50 study subjects were taken after getting informed consent for hormone profile (FSH and LH) by ELISA kit of Kamiya Biomedical company. Body Mass index (BMI) and Ultra-sonogram related findings of polycystic ovarian syndrome patients were recorded. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS-20.

Results: LH/FSH values were significantly higher among infertile and fertile females (P=0.05). BMI was also significantly correlated statistically in female patients with and without hirsutism (P=0.005). BMI (P=0.00) and LH/FSH (P=0.004) were also found to be associated significantly with obesity in patients with PCOS.

Conclusion: Since FSH was significantly correlated with obesity and infertility while BMI was associated with obesity and hirsutism among the clinical profiles, lifestyle interventions to decrease the overweight and obesity would be able to reduce the unwanted clinical symptoms of infertility and hirsutism in females with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Toxicity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Strophanthus hispidus Stem Bark

M. Osibemhe, B. O. Abdulrahman, I. O. Onoagbe

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/22036

The aim of this study was to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of the extracts (aqueous and ethanol) of S. hispidus stem bark. A modified Lorke’s (1983) method was used in this study. Varying doses of the extracts were administered orally to male albino rats. Treatment-related signs of toxicity and mortality were monitored for 24 hrs and continued for 72 hrs. Treatment-related mortality was observed at the dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight and above in the ethanolic extract and 1600 mg/kg body weight in the aqueous extract. Signs of sedation, exophthalmos, decreased locomotion and appetite in the aqueous or ethanolic treated animals were observed in the early stages of experimentation. However, these signs were not sustained in surviving animals. The LD50 was 2154 and 2039 mg/kg body weight for aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. hispidus stem bark respectively. The results showed that 1000 mg/kg body weight and above of S. hispidus stem bark may be slightly toxic. Therefore, moderate dosage is advised for purposes of medication.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Phytochemical Analysis, Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity from Seed Extract of Areca catechu L.

P. Rama Bhat, V. H. Savitri, P. G. Laxmi, E. P. Jenitta

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2016/21864

The present study was carried out to screen phytochemicals like carbohydrates, terpenoids, resins, saponins, tannins and alkaloids in the seed extract of Areca catechu by standard protocols and antibacterial activities of seed extract as well as silver nanoparticles prepared from seed extracts. The characterization of silver nanoparticles was studied by using FTIR, SEM and UV- Visible spectrophotometer. Antibacterial activity was done with aqueous, methanolic and AgNO3 seed extracts against five bacterial species viz., Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis by agar well diffusion method. The seed extract showed positive results for carbohydrate, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The colour of the solution after treating with AgNO3 was changed from light brown to dark brown confirmed the reduction of silver ion in presence of plant extract and formation of silver nanoparticles. Maximum absorption was observed at 400 nm and the size of silver nanoparticles produced was oval in shape with the diameter of 553-610 nm. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the good organism resistant against areca nut seed extracts while others were showed intermediate effects.