Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Plasma Glucose, Serum Ferritin, HbA1c and Serum Nitric Oxide Levels between Diabetic and Non Diabetic Individuals: An Indian Scenario

Mahalaxmi S. Petimani, Prabhakar Adake, P. Suresh Babu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/19982

Aims: To estimate fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum ferritin, HbA1c and serum nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects and compare the values with non diabetic individuals and also to assess the correlation analysis between the biochemical parameters in type 2 DM subjects.

Study Design: A case control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out from June 2012 to June 2013 in Bapuji Hospital and Chigateri General Hospital, Davangere, Karnataka, India.

Methodology: A total of 87 subjects were included in the present study of which 56 type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and 31 control subjects. FPG, serum ferritin, HbA1c and serum nitric oxide were estimated in all subjects.

Results: Intergroup comparison of biochemical parameters was done by unpaired “t” test and correlation between the parameters by Pearson’s coefficient analysis. The estimated mean levels (mean ± SEM) of FPG, serum ferritin, HbA1c and serum nitric oxide in control group were 98.06±1.30, 84.6±6.61, 5.46±0.15  and 39.0±0.84 respectively. Similarly, in type 2 diabetic patients mean levels of 179.5±7.11, 457.9±53.7, 9.49±0.25, and 100.9±3.5 were obtained for respective parameters. Mean values of all parameters were found to be significantly increased In DM subjects (P=.001) when compared to control group. Moreover, Serum ferritin has shown significant positive correlation with HbA1c and serum nitric oxide in type 2 DM patients with ‘P’ value of .05.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that iron over load is one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 DM. Decreasing iron stores may reduce the oxidative stress, improve the vascular endothelial dysfunction and also improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 DM subjects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effects of Kerosene and Diesel on Ion Regulatory Characteristics in Tympanotonus fuscatus after Subchronic Exposure

Edori Onisogen Simeon, Dibofori-Orji Amalo Ndu, Edori Enize Simeon

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/18855

This study was done to examine the comparative effect of different concentrations of kerosene and diesel on the ion regulatory characteristics in Tympanotonus fuscatus after exposure. Tympanotonus fuscatus were exposed to different concentrations of kerosene and diesel (10.40, 15.60, 21.00 and 26.00 ml/L) and a control to examine their effect on sodium, potassium and chloride ions in the muscle and viscera for six days. In the muscle, kerosene generally increased the levels of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in the lower concentrations (10.40 and 15.60 ml/ L) above the control values. In the higher concentrations (21.00 and 26.00 ml/L), these parameters were observed to be lower than the control value. Whereas the levels of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in the viscera increased above the control value in all the exposure concentrations except potassium 15.60 ml/L and chloride at 21.00 and 26.00 ml/L concentrations. In the viscera, sodium ion levels were lower than the control value in both kerosene and diesel media except at 21.00 ml/L concentration. Potassium ion levels in kerosene increased above the control values except at 26.00 ml/L, while lower levels of potassium ions were recorded in all the exposure concentrations. Chloride ions were lower than the control value in all the exposure concentrations of kerosene and diesel. The results of this study showed that both kerosene and diesel altered the ion regulatory and osmolality of Tympanotonus fuscatus and kerosene being more effective. The toxicants seem to be parameter and tissue specific in their mode of action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chloroform-Ethanol Extracts of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Kernel on Electrolyte Imbalance in Castor Oil-induced Diarrhea Rats

Damilola Alex Omoboyowa, O. Fred C. Nwodo, Parker E. Joshua, Chizimuzo Xavier Akalonu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/19854

Diarrhea results from an imbalance between the absorptive and secretary mechanisms in the intestinal tract, accompanied by watery bowel movement resulting in excess fluid and electrolytes in faeces. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of chloroform-ethanol extracts of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) kernel at the dose of 21 mg/kg and 84 mg/kg body weight on electrolyte imbalance in castor oil induced diarrheal rats. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) and phytochemical constituents of the extracts where also evaluated. The results showed the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced the concentration of sodium and potassium ion in the intestinal solution compared to the control animals induced with castor oil only. The results of the qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that the chloroform-ethanol extract (ethanol, chloroform and middle layers) tested positively to flavonoids, alkaloids saponin, reducing sugars, glycosides and steroids while, chloroform layer and middle layer tested positive to fat and oil. Acute toxicity and lethality studies on chloroform-ethanol extracts revealed an oral LD50 equal to or more than 5000mg/kg body weight in mice. These results showed that kernels of A. occidentale possess anti-diarrheal properties through inhibition reduction of the intestinal electrolyte secretion which can substantiate its use in the treatment of diarrhea in traditional medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Positive Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Stem Bark from Trichilia emetica (MELIACEAE) on Cellular Immunity Markers in Rats

Djoupo A. Prisca, Yapi H. Félix, Dasse S. Romuald, Djyh G. Bernard, N’guessan J. David, Djaman A. Joseph

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/19629

Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stem bark from Trichilia emetica on the cellular immunity markers (TCD4+ count, Lymphocytes, WBC, RBC) in rats wistar.

Study Design: Forty-two rats have been divided into seven groups of six and each was administered a single oral dose of the samples for 8 days. Experimental design was as follows: Group I served as control and received distilled water, group II received Isoprinosine at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), group III was administered Methylprednisolone (15 mg/kg b.w), group IV and group V received aqueous extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. respectively, group VI and VII were administered ethanolic extract at a doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. respectively. At the end of the treatment, some blood was collected in EDTA tubes for the determination of TCD4+ count by flow cytometry and hematological parameters by hemogram.

Results: Concerning TCD4+ count, the results show that there is a significant difference (P<0.05) between the control group and all groups of the treated rats. There is also a significant difference between both extracts. But the ethanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. showed pronounced activity by TCD4+ increasing in relation with control and all the treated groups. Thus, the haematological parameters show that there is no significant difference (p˃ 0.05) between the control group and the other treated groups by aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and ethanolic extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. concerning WBC count and total lymphocytes level. However, there is a significant increase (P<0.05) of WBC and total lymphocytes in blood of rats treated by ethanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. compared with control group.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that both extracts of Trichilia emetica have positive effects on cellular immunity markers such as TCD4+, total lymphocytes, WBC, RBC. However, lower concentration of ethanolic extract showed much positive effects compared to the aqueous extract.

The results of this preliminary study could be used to explore the spleenocyte proliferation and the analysis of spleen cells in order to see the real immunomodultory activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Possible Relationship between Matrix Metalloproteinases Genotyping and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HCV Infected Patients

Nermin Raafat, Hala Mosaad, Wafaa Emam, Sherif M. Galal, Khaled M. El-Gerby, Yasser Elnaggar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/20013

Background: The annual number of new cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide is over 1 million. In developing countries, the major cause of HCC is chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Various studies have reported an association between functional gene polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) promoters and different cancers.

Rationale: This study examined the association between MMP1 -1607, MMP9-1562, MMP14-6727 and MMP14-6767 gene polymorphisms and risk of HCC in HCV infected patients.  

Methods: The study enrolled 160 HCC patients, 91 with & 69 without chronic HCV infection, and 140 healthy subjects as control group. Genomic DNA was analysed for MMPs gene polymorphism using restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) for MMP1 and MMP9 but real time PCR was used for MMP14 genotyping.

Results: MMP1-2G allele carriers had higher susceptibility of developing HCC in HCV infected patients. MMP9-1562 T/T genotype had high risk of developing HCC in HCV and non HCV related patients when compared to healthy controls. A significant lower risk for HCC was shown in individuals with MMP14-6767 G/A. The distribution frequency of MMP14-6767 G and MMP14-6727 C allele and homozygote genotype was significantly higher in HCC patients.

Conclusion: MMP-1 -1607 2G allele carriers would alter the risk of HCC under specific conditions such as chronic infection with HCV. People with MMP9-1562 T/T genotype are at risk of developing HCC. MMP14-6767 G and MMP14-6727 C allele carriers and homozygote genotype might contribute to the prediction of susceptibility and pathological development of HCC in HCV infected patients.