Open Access Short Research Article

Changes in Antioxidant Status between Different Cooking Methods in Eggs Yolk

Parisa Sadighara, Rooholla Ghanbari

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/18465

Background: The method of cooking causes important changes in quality and safety of food. The purpose of this study was to survey the relation between nutritional- qualitative factors of eggs in different of cooking methods.

Methods: The eggs were exposed in different cooking including water cooking, cooking in a microwave and frying. Lipid oxidation, Vitamin E and carotenoid of yolk were measured.

Results: The changes in lipid peroxidation were not significant. There was significant change in Vitamin E level in water cooking method. The levels of vitamin E in water cooking and frying method were 0.82±0.05 and 2.6±0.6 mg/g respectively. The carotenoids content also reduced in microwave method.

Conclusion: This study showed that significant differences may exist in some nutritional-qualitative factors such as vitamin E and carotenoids levels between common cooking methods of egg. Our findings offer frying as suitable method to maintain their active components.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-cancerous/Anti-bacterial Activities of Allicin Generated In situ from Diastereo Pure Alliins by Alliinase

Shalini Gupta, Lasanthi Jayathilaka, Jin-Sheng Huang, Jenny Lee, Bao-Shiang Lee

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/19522

Aims: To facilitate allicin generation in-situ from pure diastereomers of alliin by enzymatic reaction of alliinase and assess its anti-cancerous/anti-bacterial activities.

Study Design:  Chemical synthesis and in-vitro assay of anti-cancerous/anti-bacterial  activities.

Place and Duration of Study: Protein Research Laboratory, Research Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, between February 2014 and February 2015.

Methodology: Cancer cell viability assay MTT assay, bacterial plate-diffusion growth inhibition assay, and flow cytometry cell cycle analysis have been used to demonstrate the anti-cancerous/anti-pathogen activities of the in-situ allicin. Diastereomers of alliin are produced by H2O2 oxidation of deoxyalliin, which is prepared by mixing L-cysteine and allyl bromide. Deoxyalliin and diastereomers of alliin are purified to high purity with repeated fractional crystallization. In addition, fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) protected alliin and alliin methyl ester are synthesized and purified with RP-HPLC to test the importance of amino and carboxyl groups of alliin in alliinase enzymatic reaction. Alliinase is produced by a simple and effective method from an aqueous garlic extract

Results: Results from spectrophotometric alliinase activity assay indicate that (+)-L-alliin is more reactive toward alliinase than (-)-L-alliin, and both amino and carboxyl groups of the cysteine portion of alliin are critical in alliinase enzymatic reaction. Results from cancer cell viability assay MTT assay, bacterial plate-diffusion growth inhibition, and flow cytometry cell cycle analysis confirm that the in-situ allicin is as active as allicin purified from aqueous garlic extract or allicin synthesized chemically in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: We describe here facile pathways to synthesize diastereomerically pure alliins and isolate allinase. The in-situ allicin conversed from alliin by allinase is very active. The data obtained here provide useful information on the design of the in-situ allicin strategy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Liver and Kidney Function Tests and Histological Study on Malaria Parasite Infected Mice Administered with Seed Extract of Picralima nitida

N. E. Nwankwo, O. F. C. Nwodo, A. E. Amalunweze, K. U. Agbo, S. C. Abugu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/18841

The liver and kidney are very important organs of the body that play vital roles of detoxification of compounds and removal of waste products respectively. In this research, some liver and kidney function tests were carried out on albino mice infected with malaria parasite to know the effect of treatment with extract on them. Pulverised dried seeds of Picralima nitida were extracted using ethanol. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, total bilirubin, total protein, urea and creatinine levels and histopathological studies on liver and kidney tissues were performed. From the results of the experiment, significant (p < 0.05) reductions were observed in serum levels of urea, creatinine of the treated groups compared to the positive control (group infected with malaria parasite and treated with 3% tween 80) on days 3 and 5 post treatment. There was non-significant (p > 0.05) reduction in serum AST and ALT activities of the groups treated with 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg b.w. of the extract on days 3 and 5 post treatment compared to the positive control. Groups treated with 20 and 40 mg/kg b.w. of the extract showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in bilirubin level on days 3 and 5 post treatment compared to the positive control. All the treated groups showed significant (p < 0.05) elevation in serum total protein on day 3 post treatment while the group treated with 80 mg/kg b.w. of the extract showed significant (p < 0.05) elevation in total protein on day 5 treatment compared to the positive control. Histopathological studies on the hepatic tissues of the treated mice showed lesser inflammatory cells around the portal areas than the untreated. No lesions were noticed in the renal tubules of both the treated and untreated mice. From the results of this experiment, it is now obvious that Picralima nitida seeds possess good hepato-protective properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Properties and Organoleptic Quality of M. oleifera Seed Oil

A. N. Tsado, B. Lawal, I. F. Ossamulu, E. S. Santali, E. N. Gana, M. I. Umar, A. Y. Gimba

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/18656

The study were undertaken in order to determine the physico-chemical properties and sensory attribute of oils extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera. The oils were extracted from the seeds and analyzed for moisture content, specific gravity, saponification value, refractive index, peroxide value, acid number, iodine value and sensory quality. The fresh oil was also characterized for its sensory attribute using three different foods. The seed oil had the following physical and chemical parameters. The color (yellow), moisture content (2.0%), specific gravity 1.0598 kg/dm3), refractive index (1.465±0.04), acid values (0.67 mg/KOH/g), iodine value (110g/100g), peroxide value (7.0 meq/kg), saponification value (178.10 mg/KOHg), melting point  (36.7), Flash point (0c) (162) and rancidity (14.0). Organoleptic scoring show that yam fried with Moringa seed oil had more taste, color, aroma than yam fried with vegetable oil while chicken and egg fried with vegetable oil had higher taste, color, aroma and overall acceptance scoring than chicken and egg fried with Moringa seed oil. The study showed that Moringa seed oil can be used as nutritional oil, industrial raw material and nutraceuticals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanolic Extract from Curculigo recurvata Leaves

Mohammad Mustakim, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Prawej Ansari, Anaytulla ., Md. Foyez Ahmad, Mohammed Abu Sayeed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/20037

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of the methanol extract of Circuligo recurvate leaves, which belongs to the family Hypoxidaceae, the primary phytochemical property was also intended to screen out.

Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity assessment and results obtained were compared to standards. The total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were estimated from Gallic acid and Quercetine calibration curve respectably.

Results: IC50 value of the extract showed 259.040±3.98 μg/mL in case of the DPPH scavenging assay, the total phenolic and the flavonoid contents of extract was 384±3.34 mg/gm and 149.23±1.12 mg/gm respectively. The reducing power capacity of the extract observed to raise as the concentration of the extract gradually increases. The mortality rate at the assessment of cytotoxicity in brine shrimp napulii model was found increasing with the increase of the concentration and the LC50 value of extract was 164.58±2.67 μg/ml.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the leaves extract of C. recurvata has the presence of antioxidant compound and there is presence of molecules that can inhibit rapid growing cells.