Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity of Roots Barks Extract of Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill and Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. & Perr, Two Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Candidiasis in Northern Côte d'Ivoire

Kouangbé Mani Adrien, Bahi Calixte, Tia Honoré, Boga Gogo Lucien, Edoh Vincent, Djaman Allico Joseph, N’Guessan Jean David

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBcRR/2015/17481

Aims: To evaluate the anticandidal activity of some solvent extracts of Securinega virosa and Anogeissus leiocarpa from northern Côte d'Ivoire.

Study Design: In vitro assay of antifungal activity.

Place and Duration of Study: Biochemical Pharmacodynamy Laboratory, Biosciences Department, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny and Bacteriology-Virology Laboratory University Hospital of Treichville, Côte d’Ivoire between January and December 2013.

Methods: The herbs studied were examined for diameter of inhibition zone using agar well diffusion method; minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) using microdilution method.

Results: All tested plants extracts, except the aqueous extracts, showed varying zones of inhibition against fungi tested. The diameters of inhibition zones for all organic extracts are greater than 10 mm for a sample concentration of 500 mg/ml and were significantly higher than for nystatine (p <0.05; p <0.01). The ethanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpa revealed the strongest anticandidal activity against all tested strains with MICs ranging from 0.195 to 12.5 mg/ml, and MFCs from 0.390 to 50 mg/ml. The phytochemical screening of extracts shows the presence of polyterpenes and sterols, polyphenols, flavonoids, catechin tannins and alkaloids.

Conclusion: S. virosa and A. leiocarpa possesse compounds with good anticandidal properties. This results support their traditional use in treatment of infectious diseases caused by certain Candida species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Biochemical Changes in Serum of Female Albino Rats Administered Aqueous Extract of Piper guineense Schumach Seeds

Friday O. Uhegbu, Chinedu Imo, Amadike E. Ugbogu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBcRR/2015/17911

This study examined the biochemical changes in serum of female albino rats administered aqueous extract of Piper guineense Schumach seeds extract. The test animals (groups 2, 3 and 4) received 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg of the extract respectively for 21 days, while group 1 served as control and received a placebo of 0.9% physiological saline which is the vehicle for administration. On the 22nd day the test animals which have been fasted overnight were sacrificed with chloroform anesthesia. Blood was collected through cardiac puncture. Results show that serum protein, albumin and packed cell volume concentration significantly (p≤0.05) increased. Creatinine and urea levels decreased (p≤0.05) significantly, 95% confidence level, while cholesterol profile decreased (p≤0.05) significantly, except HDL. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, increased (p≤0.05) significantly, while lipid peroxidation decreased. This study has shown that nursing mothers in South East of Nigeria who use the Piper guineense Schumach seeds may derive immense benefit from its effect on the biochemical parameters assayed in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Assessment of the Effects of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus on Wistar Strain Rats

M. I. Bello, M. A. Madusolumuo, I. Igbokwe

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBcRR/2015/15610

Aqueous stem bark extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus was phytochemically screened indicating the presence of alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones, saponins and phenols. Antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract using Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae as test organisms showed varying zones of inhibition with 10 mm zone of inhibition exhibited by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of extract were 16 µg/ml and 32 µg/ml respectively. Treatment of experimental animals with the aqueous stem bark extract for a period of six weeks and subsequent assessment of its effect biochemically revealed that alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), acid phosphatase (ACP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were significantly higher than normal suggesting certain degree of liver injury. Glucose, cholesterol, total and direct bilirubin as well as total protein levels were significantly higher than normal values with respect to animals treated with 500mg/kg body weight suggesting a dose dependent effect of the extract on the animals. Urea and creatinine levels were slightly lower than normal. Overall, the result of this study showed that the effect of the extract was more pronounced on the liver than the kidney as depicted by the photomicrographs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity in the Berry and Shoot of Solanum pseudocapsicum Grown in Nigeria

A. E. Irondi, E. J. Iweala, O. S. Agboola, J. K. Akintunde, J. A. Ajiboye

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/18760

Aim: To evaluate the distribution of metabolites and in vitro antioxidant activity in the berry and shoot of Solanum pseudocapsicum (S. pseudocapsicum).

Study Design: Berry and shoot samples of S. pseudocapsicum were randomly collected from different plants of the species in the same natural habitat, and were subsequently processed and used for the spectrophometric quantification of their metabolites and in vitro antioxidant activity.

Methodology: The samples were oven-dried to a constant weight, and were later milled separately into a fine particle size powder. The milled samples were extracted with methanol, and the extracts were analyzed for their metabolites content and In vitro antioxidant activity using appropriate methods.

Results: The berry had significantly (P < 0.05) higher total protein, total lipid and amylose levels than the shoot. Conversely, the shoot had significantly (P < 0.05) higher starch, total soluble sugar, amylopectin, and vitamin C contents than the berry. Secondary metabolites (total phenol, tannin, total flavonoid, total saponin and total alkaloid) were consistently more predominant in the berry than in the shoot, except total carotenoid. Methanol extracts of both the berry and the shoot displayed antioxidant activity in vitro, with the berry having significantly (P < 0.05) higher ABTS radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than the shoot. Both extracts also scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical in a dose-dependent manner; with the IC50 of the shoot (1.88 mg/mL) being lower than that of the berry (2.33 mg/mL).

Conclusion: The distribution of metabolites and antioxidant activity in the berry and the shoot of S. pseudocapsicum provide support for their medicinal uses. However, the preponderance of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity in the berry than in the shoot might confer it with more potential to ameliorate oxidative stress in disease conditions, than the shoot.

Open Access Original Research Article

(1H-Pyrrolo [2,3-b]pyridine)7-Azaindole Derivatives and Their Antiurease, Phosphodiesterase and β-glucuronidase Activity

Zafar S. Saify, Nighat Sultana, Ajmal Khan, Shazia Haider

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/10575

A variety of 7-azaindole analogs 1-14 with variable substituents on phenyl ring of phenacyl moiety were synthesized and evaluate for their urease, phosphodiesterase and b-glucuronidase Inhibitory potential. Compound 9 (IC50 = 2.19±0.37µM) showed potent urease inhibitory potential than standard thiourea (IC50 = 21.00±0.01µM). However, while compounds 10 (IC50 = 255.11±6.62µM) and 8 (IC50 = 133.3±0.46µM), exhibited moderate urease potential. Moreover, compound 2 (IC50 = 20.83± 0.234µM) showed potent phosphodiesterase inhibitory potential than standard EDTA (IC50 = 274.00+0.007µM). Compound 8 (IC50 192.6±3.53µM) was found to be moderate b-glucuronidase inhibitor, as compare to standard 1,4, lactone D saccharic acid (IC50 = 48.41±1.24µM). Nevertheless, compounds 13 (36.81% inhibition) and 14 (47.11% inhibition) showed less than 50% b-glucuronidase inhibition, therefore they were not further evaluated for their IC50 values. The size of the substituent, electron donating or withdrawing affect of substituents as well as the position of substituent on phenyl affects the activity.