Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Amino Acid Profile of Plukenetia conophora Seed Kernel Flours

Ernest A. Anyalogbu, Eugene N. Onyeike, Michael O. Monanu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 121-131
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/17018

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Amino Acid Profile of Plukenetia conophora Seed Kernel Flours

The effect of heat treatment on the amino acid composition of Plukenetia conophora (African walnut) seed flours was investigated. The seed kernel of Plukenetia conophora (PC) is eaten roasted or cooked mainly as indigenous snacking nut in Nigeria. The sample was divided into four lots. The 1st was used raw, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th boiled in water (99±1°C) for 45, 90, and 135 min and labeled PCraw, PC45, PC90, and PC135 respectively. The kernels were found to contain amino acids found naturally in plant protein. Glutamic acid (7.88-18.5 g/100 g protein) and aspartic acid (4.86-9.16 g/100 g protein) were the most abundant non-essential amino acids while the essential amino acid ranges were for leucine (4.50-7.80 g/100 g protein), lysine (3.65-7.09 g/100 g protein) and arginine (3.22-6.12 g/100 protein). In addition to leucine other branched-chain amino acids (Isoleucine and valine) were present in high proportion. Cooking progressively decreased the level of all amino acids. For essential amino acid, the percent decrease ranged from 6.07% for lysinein PC45 to 64% for isoleucine in PC135. Protein quality parameters such as: predicted protein efficiency ratio, total amino acid, total essential amino acid, total acidic amino acid, total neutral amino acid, total aromatic amino acid and total sulphur amino acid though decreased by cooking were comparable to those of some plant foods and recommended standards. Based on whole hen’s egg amino acids, FAO amino acid provisional pattern and Food and Nutrition Board/Institute of Medicine (FNB/IOM) pattern for 1-3-year-old child, the percentage adequacy (Essential amino acid score) of most of the essential amino acids in the samplesat all levels of cooking were high. Despite the decreasein the amino acid contents bycooking, the plant food has the potential for giving high quality protein that can be exploited to enhance protein quality in human nutrition and performance in sports.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypolipidemic Properties of Ethanol Extract of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome

G. N. Okwu, S. E. Abanobi, U. V. Nnadi, C. O. Ujowundu, A. C. Ene

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 132-138
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/17158

Hypolipidemic Properties of Ethanol Extract of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome

This study investigated the effect of ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizome on hyperlipidemia induced with carbimazole and cholesterol in male wister rats. Acute toxicity analysis with the Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract produced no letality even at higher doses. Hyperlipidemia was induced using 400 mg/kg cholesterol and 2 mg/kg carbimazole. The lipemic control group was administered cholesterol and carbimazole but not the normal control group. Cholesterol and carbimazole administration caused a significant (p = 0.05) increase in the Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride (TG), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), non-High Density Lipoprotein (non-HDL) Cholesterol and LDL/HDL ratio and a significant (p = .05) decrease in the levels of HDL cholesterol  in the lipemic control when compared to the normal control. Treatment with ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus at 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and the standard hypolipidemic drug (simvastatin) at 5mg/kg significantly (p = 0.05) reduced total cholesterol, TG, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, total non-HDL Cholesterol and also significantly (p=.05) increased the level of HDL cholesterol when compared to the non-treatment group (the lipemic control group). Results of the present study indicate that Cyperus rotundus rhizome contains principles that have hypolipidemic potentials and which compare effectively with standard clinically used therapeutic Hypolipidemic agent, simvastatin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity Study of Ricinus cummunis Lnn Seed Suspension in Female Wister Albino Rats

B. Y. Muhammad, A. J. Alhassan, I. J. Jaafaru

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 139-147
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/17511

Toxicity Study of Ricinus cummunis Lnn Seed Suspension in Female Wister Albino Rats

Ricinus communis seed has been proven effective to prevent conception since time immemorial. This research focuses on the toxicity study of the seed suspension in Wister albino rats. Twenty four (24) rats were used for the sub-chronic toxicity study, while 13 mice for the acute toxicity study.  The seed suspension of Ricinus communis seed at three graded concentrations (3.80, 7.60 and 11.40 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally; to Groups I, II and III respectively once every day for the period of one month. The liver and kidney functions were determined after the last administration. Serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine were determined. The activity of ALT, AST, ALP and the concentrations of urea and creatinine at 3.80 mg/kg body weight showed no significant difference (p>0.05) compared to the control. However, a significant increase (p<0.05) in these parameters was observed in rats given 7.60 and 11.40 mg/kg body weight. Similarly a significant increase (p<0.05) in lipid profile was observed in rats given 11.40 mg/kg body weight. Acute toxicity revealed the median lethal dose (LD50) of 1587 mg. Histological analysis of the liver and kidneys of the rats after three months revealed no cellular death, necrosis or inflammation. This indicates that consecutive use of the seed at the traditional dose (3.80 mg/kg in rat; equivalent to 3 seed/70Kg in human) for long period of time is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. Ricinus communis seed is therefore safe in rats at the concentrations administered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antioxidant Effect of Spathodea campanulata leaf Extracts

Akharaiyi Fred Coolborn, Boboye Bolatito, Akpambang Victoria Omolara, F. C. Adetuyi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 148-159
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/16371

Phytochemical and Antioxidant Effect of

Spathodea campanulata leaf Extracts

Aim: Spathodea campanulata is a medicinal plant useful in traditional medicine for the treatment and prevention of some diseases of bacterial and non microbial origins. As a result of this, it becomes very important to investigate the phytochemical and antioxidant (in vitro and in vivo) activities of the plant leaf extracts by chemical methods to ascertain its potential role in folklore medicine.

Study Design: In vitro and in vivo by chemical methods.

Methodology: 1.5 kg each of S. campanulata air dried leaves ground to powder was extracted separately with ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether at room temperature (25±2°C).

Results: The leaf extracts showed qualitatively the presence of saponin, steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, alkaloids, phenol, tannin, terpenoids, phlobatanin and antraquinone. Amount of quantitative phytochemicals screened from the extracts was more in ethanol followed by aqueous, methanol and was least in petroleum ether. Valuable in vitro antioxidant activities were exhibited by the aqueous, ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether extracts in free radical (DPPH), hydroxyl scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant properties. Decrease in values was observed in the in vivo antioxidant assay of glutathione and catalase levels in group of mice infected with Salmonella typhi for three days while there was increase in lipid peroxidation on comparison with negative control value. However improvement in enzymatic antioxidant levels of mice was observed when treated with the plant ethanol leaf extract. The recorded data in the study proposed the use of leaf extract of S. campanulata in traditional medicine hence its inhibition potentials and barrier to generation of free radicals. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Ischaemia Modified Albumin and Malondialdehyde Level in Subjects Suffering from Hypothyroidism

Jayati Roy Choudhury, Amrita Karmakar, Barnita Guha, Brahmarshi Das, Jayanta Kumar Rout

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 160-165
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/17638

Thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism) leads to many serious conditions in body. Oxidative stress (OS), a state of excess free radicals and reactive metabolites formation which ultimately leads to an imbalance between the production of oxidants and their elimination by antioxidative systems in the body. Researchers all around the globe are in search of the link between this oxidative stress by estimating its different markers and hypothyroidism. In this present study oxidative stress is evaluated in hypothyroidism by estimating serum ischaemia modified albumin (IMA) and malondialdehyde (MDA).

Settings and Design: 56 patients attending different Out-Patient Department (OPD) who have fulfilled inclusion criteria were included as cases and 43 apparently healthy persons were selected as control. Serum fT4 and TSH level measured by immunoassay and serum IMA and MDA level measured by well standardised validated methods.

Results: By undertaking independent sample‘t’ test it is found that mean and standard deviation (SD) of IMA (t=4.149, p<0.001) and MDA (t=19.171, p<0.001) are significantly increased in case group than the control group. In case group it was found that serum IMA & MDA are significantly correlated with fT4 {r= -0.835 (IMA) & -0.765(MDA)} & TSH {(r= +0.859(IMA) & +0.672(MDA)}.