Macronutrients and Micronutrients Profile of Some Underutilized Beans in South Western Nigeria
Beans are a rich source of nutrients in human diet. However a number of edible bean varieties are largely underutilized in developing countries due to little or no information on their nutritional composition. The present study investigated the nutritional content of mung beans, African yam beans, soybeans, black eyed peas and pigeon peas from parts of South Western Nigeria. Samples were collected randomly in duplicates across the six South-western states of Nigeria. Common beans was included as a reference for comparison. Standard methods were used to determine the proximate composition of all bean samples. Mineral nutrients and phaseolin protein fractions (albumin, globulin and prolamine) of bean samples (excluding pigeon pea varieties) was also determined. The proximate, mineral and phaseolin protein contents differed significantly (P<.05) between bean types. Highest protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fibre and ash content was in African yam bean (24.96%), mung beans (6.60%), soybean (62.81%), mung beans (15.24%) and African yam beans (4.30%), respectively. The beans compared fairly with common beans in proximate composition. Mineral nutrients differed significantly (P<.05) between bean types. Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium (particularly in Mung beans) were in high amounts. Black eyed peas had the lowest total of mineral content while mung beans had the highest. The phaseolin protein fractions were significantly different (P<.05) among bean types. African yam bean had the highest albumin and globulin content (%/mg protein) of 41.89 and 35.70 respectively, while prolamine was highest in soybeans. These results indicated that these underutilized beans compares favourably in terms of nutritional composition with widely consumed common beans in Nigeria. In addition, African yam beans and Mung beans are equally suitable alternatives from a protein-rich standpoint.
Kinetics for the Inhibition of Serum Acetylthiocholin Esterase Activity by Some Prepared Phenobarbital Derivatives
This work addresses the kinetic analysis on the interaction of some prepared Phenobarbital derivatives (A, B, C and D) with human serum acetylcholinesterase. It was found that these compound (A, B and D) does have inhibitory effects at different concentrations (10-4, 10-6, 10-8, 10-10M), and were observed to have elevated inhibition with increasing concentrations(10-10 to 10-4M) of concentrations for both compounds A and B, elevated inhibition with decrease concentration from 10-4 to 10-10M for D. The effects of each A, B and D were reversible in nature. All of the results for C compound were neglected. Michaelis- Menten constant and maximum velocity for hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine iodide by AChE was determined in control and treated systems. Line weaver-Burk plot and their secondary replots indicated that the nature of inhibition was (competitive at concentration 10-4, non competitive at 10-10 for A), (non competitive at 10-4, competitive at 10-10 for B), (non competitive at 10-4, and uncompetitive at 10-10 for D) respectively. The value of ki was also estimated. The action mechanism of these types of compounds acting as inhibitors to the AChE is suggested.
Natural polyphenols are major constituents of plant foods and herbs. Numerous reports demonstrated that these compounds inhibited amyloid formation and destabilized the preformed amyloid fibrils. The present study, utilizing bovine insulin as a model peptide, examined the anti-amyloidogenic effects of fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). Fluorescent probes, transmission electron microscopy and hemolytic assay were utilized to determine the roles of fisetin on amyloidogenesis of insulin. The results demonstrated that fisetin dose-dependently inhibited amyloid formation of insulin. Moreover, fisetin disaggregated the preformed insulin fibrils and transformed the fibrils into non-amyloid structures. Hemolysis was observed when erythrocytes were co-incubated with insulin fibrils. Fisetin inhibited fibril-induced hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner. Hydrophobic interaction is suggested to be a key driving force in the anti-amyloidogenic and fibril-disaggregating effects of fisetin. The results of the present work suggest that fisetin is an effective anti-amyloidogenic compound and may serve as a lead structure for the design of novel drugs for the treatment of amyloid diseases.
Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Africa is considered to be the cradle of mankind with a rich biological and cultural diversity marked regional difference in healing practices. Natural product of Africa represents a constant interest as sources of health remedies, nutrition and cosmetic formulations. African trypanosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases caused by fly-borne protozoa known as trypanosomes that affect both human and livestock with devastating consequences. Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis is unsatisfactory for various reasons including unacceptable toxicity, poor efficacy, undesirable route of administration and drug resistance. In this regards, the last few decades have witnessed a surfeit of investigations which have been geared to investigate the effect of common traditionally-used medicinal plants/insect in alleviating the cellular changes produced during trypanosome infection.
Major Objective: This review presents the profiles of African natural product (plants and insect) with anti-trypanosomal properties, reported in the literature.
Methodology: Literature was collected from published articles (through electronic search), thesis, Proceedings as well as book of abstract that report on the in vitro or in vivo anti-trypanosomal activity of plants, insects and their products.
Results: A total of 215 plants pecies from 82 families were found. While two herbal formulation and three insect/there product were reviewed for invivo anti-trypanosomal activity Furthermore, some of the plants were investigated for possible ameliorative effects on the trypanosome-induced pathological changes. Phyto- chemistry studies of the anti-trypanosomal plants led to the isolation of 96 specific bioactive anti-trypanosomal compounds from different parts of the plants
Conclusion: It is clear that these reviews provide strong evidence of the potential beneficial effects of phytotherapy in the traditional management of trypanosomiasis, which could be subsequently developed into a cost effective alternative medicine to complement treatment of trypanosomiasis.
Comprehensive Roles of TP53 in Cell Signaling, Apoptosis and Carcinogenesis – A Review
TP53 gene is a tumor suppressor gene and it inhibits the emergence of cancerous growth. The signaling of TP53 takes part in the co-ordination of cellular response to various kinds of stress like hypoxia and DNA damage. The downstream signals start to multiple processes such as MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), apoptosis, and the arrest of cell cycle. TP53 becomes inactivated when encounters tumor growth. According to estimation, more than half of all cancers imply the inactivating mutations of TP53, which leads to the expression of mutant p53 protein. An extensive range of cancers carry the mutations of TP53 or certain other defects which deregulate p53 and its cofactors, making this gene a significant and highly studied tumor suppressor gene. Most of the mutations that are found in human cancers are not inherited but are acquired. As p53 protein binds DNA, it triggers another gene to synthesize a protein named p21 inside the cell, which interferes with a cell division-stimulating kinase (cdk2). When p21 forms a complex with cdk2 the cell cannot pass onto the next phase of cell division. Therefore, Mutant p53 can no longer get itself attached to DNA effectively, and as a result, the p21 protein is not made available to function as the 'stop signal' for the division of cell.