Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro and In vivo Effect of Quercetin on Hepatocyte Transmembrane N+, K+- ATPase Activity in Rats

Akinwumi Tosin Ogundajo, Joshua Oloruntobi Imoru

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/16387

Aims: This study investigated In vitro and In vivo effect of quercetin on transmembrane hepatocyte Na+, K+- ATPase activity in normal Wistar rats.

Study Design: One factor experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between April and September 2010.

Methodology: In vitro effect of quercetin on transmembrane hepatocyte Na+, K+-ATPase activity was investigated through enzyme assay by measuring the released inorganic phosphate (Pi) through the method of Fiske and Subbarow, while in In vivo experiment, three (3) main groups of male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g (n=5) were randomly selected. Group 1 (IP; Intraperitoneal), group 2 (IV; Intravenous) and 3 (OR; Oral) group. All three groups were administered with quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight (once/day) for 5 days through respective routes. The control for each group received equal volume of vehicle through respective routes of administration. Hepatocyte Na+, K+-ATPase activity for each group was assayed after days of quercetin administration.

Results: In vitro results indicated that quercetin, with IC50 of 5.75 µm showed high inhibitory activity on Na+, K+-ATPase, while in vivo result showed inhibitory activity on hepatic Na+ K+-ATPase irrespective of the routes of administration. Quercetin through the oral route showed significant    (F5, 12= 265.8; P=0.05) inhibitory effect on hepatic Na+ K+-ATPase compared to control. Administration of quercetin though the parenteral routes (intraperitoneal and intravenous) showed significant (F5, 12= 265.8; P<0.001) inhibitory effect compared to respective control. The parenteral routes of administration of quercetin have significant (F5, 12= 265.8; P<0.001) inhibitory effect on hepatic Na+ K+-ATPase compared to the oral route

Conclusion: Quercetin showed high inhibitory effect In vitro on hepatocyte Na+, K+- ATPase activity in normal rats. In vivo administration of quercetin showed significant inhibitory effect on hepatocyte Na+, K+- ATPase activity in normal rats, with the parenteral routes of administration exerting significant inhibitory effect compared to the oral route.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Heat Processing on Nutrient Composition and Energy Values of Selected Cereals Consumed in Nigeria

J. C. Ifemeje, S. C. Udedi, C. B. Lukong, A. C. Nwaka, C. Egbuna, A. U. Okechukwu, F. Onwudiwe

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 20-26
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/12859

Influence of Heat Processing on Nutrient Composition and Energy Values of Selected Cereals Consumed in Nigeria

Aims: The influence of heat processing on the nutrient composition and energy values of selected cereals (Sorghum, Maize, Millet, and Rice) consumed in Nigeria were investigated.

Study Design: Cereals samples (100 g each) were weighed out for processing prior to analysis. The weighed samples were divided into two lots of raw and cooked sample. Raw sample was sun dried, further oven dried for 24 hours and ground into flour which passed through a 30-mesh test sieve. The second lot was cooked to tenderness by boiling with deionized water for 15 minutes at 120ºC. Thereafter, the cooking solution was discarded. Samples were drained, oven dried, ground using a food grinder (Model MX 491N, National) into flour 20-mesh screen and stored in a clean dry air-tight sample bottle in a refrigerator (4ºC) until required for analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Analysis was done at the Department of Biochemistry, Anambra State University, between April 2014 and May 2014.

Methodology: Proximate composition was determined following standard methods. Mineral compositions were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption/Emission Spectrophotometer 200A.

Results: Cooking significantly (P<0.05) increased the moisture content of the samples with maize retaining the highest moisture content. Dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, total carbohydrate and calorific values decreased significantly after heat processing. Cooking also decreased the level of divalent metals Fe, Zn, and Ca, but increased the monovalent metal Na compared to their levels in raw samples except Cu that decreased significantly.

Conclusion: Heat processing significantly decreased the nutrient compositions of cereals.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activity and In vivo Acute Toxicological Studies of Nelsonia campestris Aqueous Leaf Exrtact

H. L. Muhammad, H. A. Makun, A. Y. Kabiru, A. Mann, M. B. Busari, A. S. Abdullah, A. Fatima

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/16081

In vitro Antibacterial Activity and In vivo Acute Toxicological Studies of Nelsonia campestris Aqueous Leaf Exrtact

Aim: To investigate In vitro antibacterial activity and in vivo toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Nelsonia campestris.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Methodology: Standard laboratory procedures were used.

Results and Discussion: The extract was highly active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and moderately active against Bacillus subtilis and Shigella dysenteriae with inhibition diameters in the range of (20 mm-30 mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) recorded for the extract ranges between (80-90) mg/ml, and (70-90) mg/ml respectively. 100, 500, 1000, 2000 and 500 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract were orally administered to rats in their respective groups, while 0.5 ml of normal saline was administered to the rats in the control group for a period of one week. At the end of the experiment, the animals were anaesthetized under chloroform, and sacrificed. Blood samples were collected by jugular puncture and used for the analyses of biochemical and haematological parameters. The packed cell volume (PCV) in 100 mg/kg bodyweight group increased (38.0±1.00) in reference to other groups. Red blood cell, and white blood cell also increased significantly (p<0.05) when compared with the control group. Total protein decreased (p>0.05) in all the treated groups in reference to the control. Activities of Aspartate transaminase (AST) increased in all groups in a dose dependent manner while that of alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) decreased but showing increase in the same dose dependent fashion. Triglyceride increased significantly (p<0.05) in all groups, while cholesterol decreased in all groups. Urea increased significantly in a dose dependent manner when compared to the control group while creatinine decreased in the same way.

Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Nelsonia campestris has activity against the microbes resulting from the suppression of immunity by morbillivirus, but with mild toxicity to kidney, and liver.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Nephroprotective Effects of Graded Concentrations of Calcium and Magnesium on Nephrotoxicities Induced by a Constant Toxic Concentration of Cadmium and Lead in Rats

Jonathan D. Dabak, Samuel Y. Gazuwa, Paul A. Okekunle, Gregory A. Ubom

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 36-44
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/17119

The Nephroprotective Effects of Graded Concentrations of Calcium and Magnesium on Nephrotoxicities Induced by a Constant Toxic Concentration of Cadmium and Lead in Rats

Aims: To concurrently administer constant toxic concentrations of Cd and Pb with graded concentrations of Ca and Mg using a rat model to determine their nephroprotective effects against Cd and Pb nephrotixicities.

Study Design: Wistar rats were divided into five groups of four rats per group in metabolic cages. Group one was placed on tap water only, while group two to five were placed on a constant concentration of 0.327 mg/L lead and 0.079 mg/L cadmium concurrently with graded magnesium and calcium.

Place and Duration of Study: The animal House of Pharmacology Department, Anatomy and Biochemistry laboratories, University of Jos, Nigeria, were used for treatments, histochemical and biochemical analyses respectively, between December 2013 and April 2014.

Methodology: Their feed was mashed with the same water meant for each group. All the groups fed and freely drank from the water for a period of fourteen (14) days. Twenty-four hour (24h) urine samples were collected from the rats at their respective groups in the urine collector of the metabolic cages for fourteen days. The urine samples were kept frozen until needed for clinical analysis. At the termination of the experiments, the rats were humanely sacrificed, the kidneys identified and fixed in 10% formal saline for histopathological studies.

Results: Kidney biomarkers in urine decreased, while urinary excretion of urea and creatinine increased as the concentrations of calcium and magnesium were elevated. The histopathological analyses show that there was no significant difference (P<0.05) between control and groups 4 and 5, but there was significant difference (P>0.05) between control and groups 2 and 3.

Conclusion: Results suggest that calcium and magnesium could mitigate the nephrotoxicities induced by cadmium and lead. Therefore, good proportion of calcium and magnesium in the diet and water would enhance good health especially for those living in environments contaminated with heavy metals.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Potential Metal Toxicity and Mineral Deficiency in Autism

Archana Singh Sikarwar, Hema Balakrishnan, Shiow Pyng Tong, Koh Vi Vien, Koh Vi Vien, Jason Yoong, Nang Sue Chin, Lim Jiayi, Tye Kar Yee

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/13913

A Review of Potential Metal Toxicity and Mineral Deficiency in Autism 

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that predominantly affects the younger generation.  The etiology which contributes to the occurrence of autism is not well defined. However, apart from genetic factors, environmental factors such as metal exposure have been controversial from the last decade. Contamination of several metals was proposed to be responsible for oxidative stress production, mitochondria dysfunction and immune abnormalities which lead to characteristics of autism in children. Objective of review is to analyze the relationship between the most studied toxic metals namely mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic. Based on the findings, metal toxicity due to lead, mercury and aluminum are clearly exhibited meanwhile insufficient data were available on arsenic and cadmium. In addition, lack of essential minerals in autistic children who were exposed to heavy metals has also precipitated the autistic disorder. However, high quality epidemiological studies with minimal biasness should be conducted to support the correlation of heavy metal with autism.