Aim: The effects of infection with Trypanosoma brucei on renal and hepatic functions in early phase of disease were studied in experimentally infected pigs. The aim of this study was to identify serum biochemical changes that could serve as biomarkers of early renal and hepatic dysfunctions and also serve as basis for therapeutic management of T. brucei infections in man and animals.
Study Design: A total of 15 growing pigs aged between 6 and 12 months old were used for the study. The pigs were selected at random into two groups. Group one was made up of seven animals and served as the infected group. The pigs were each infected with 1 x 106 parasites in 2mls of normal saline subcutaneously. The second group, made up of six animals, served as the un-infected control group.
Place and Duration of Study: The pigs were housed in insect proof pens for two months while the experiment lasted.
Methodology: Blood for serum obtained through venipuncture of the anterior venacava was used for determination of the serum total proteins, albumin, creatinine and urea concentrations as well as activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase post infection.
Results: After infection there was a sharp increase in Total proteins (P = .05) accompanied by decrease in albumin but increase in globulin concentrations on Day 5. Increases in, serum creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) concentrations and, activities of Alanine and Aspartate aminotransferases also occurred from this day.
Conclusion: It was concluded that decrease in serum albumin concentration alongside increase in creatinine and urea levels as well as those of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities may be biomarkers of early onset of renal and hepatic pathology and determinants of ability to achieve self-cure from anemia in T. brucei infections of man and animals. This underscores the relevance of erythropoietin use in chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis and the roles of renal and hepatic integrity in trypanotolerace.
Total Colony Counts of Some Microorganisms in Soil Samples Exposed to Electromagnetic Radiations from Mobile Phones
Effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMR) from mobile phones on some soil bacterial (Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Enterococcus) and fungi (Saccharomyces, Penicillium and Geotrichum) strains were studied. At the study periods of 0, 30, 60, and 90 days, the total colony counts (CFU/g) and viability ratios of Bacteria and fungi strains were determined on both the EMR unexposed and exposed soil samples. At the exposure periods of 30, 60, and 90 days, the mean total colony counts of all the organisms in the EMR exposed samples were statistically (p<0.05) lower than those of the EMR unexposed samples. The percentage changes in total colony counts of the EMR unexposed and exposed soil samples between 0 to 90 days for Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Enterococcus, Saccharomyces, Penicillium and Geotrichum were 2.54% and -70.51%, 33.18% and -75.80%, 11.79% and -63.93%, 20.12% and -91.96%, 30.00% and -98.94%, 62.36% and -61.06%, 42.40% and -100%, and 50.46% and -78.48% respectively. These show that Staphylococcus and Saccharomyces strains being the most resistant, while Enterococcus and Penicillium were the most susceptible strains. The results generally indicate that EMR has negative impacts on both Bacteria and fungi total colony counts.
Aim: To investigate the changes of carbonyl stress parameters in rats with combined streptozotocin induced diabetes (STZD, hyperglycemia model) and glycerol stimulated rhabdomyolysis (RM, oxidative stress model).
Methodology: RM was induced by glycerol injection and confirmed by changes of heme oxygenase activity, creatine kinase activity, total heme, creatinine, uric acid, urea and bilirubin. STZD was induced by streptozotocin injection and proved by increasing of glucose levels. Carbonyl stress development was determined by total aldehyde levels, TBARS, protein CO group levels, N(6)-Carboxymethyllysine and low-molecular-weight SH groups in blood plasma and liver tissue.
Results: A significant increase of carbonyl stress parameters was recorded in RM and STZD rat groups compared with their relative control levels. In animals subjected to the combined induction of RM and STZD, the level of carbonyl stress parameters was lower than that recorded for the STZD and RM groups: total aldehyde levels were decreased in liver resulting in lower TBARS and protein CO group levels. Low-molecular-weight SH groups were increased compared with STZD.
Conclusion: Changes of carbonyl stress parameters indicated the significant role of carbonyl stress in diabetes and in rhabdomyolysis. It was demonstrated that combined stimulation of RM and hyperglycemia led to decreasing of carbonyl stress parameters. It can be suggested that these changes in carbonyl stress parameters can be associated with additional initiation of antioxidant defense systems or some compensatory mechanisms.
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of five major mycotoxins in two Nigerian cereal grains destined for human consumption.
Study Design: Nigeria experiences high humidity and high temperatures for up to three-quarters of the year; and these are some of the conditions that promote mycotoxin production by filamentous fungi in food commodities. In this regard, rice and maize samples were collected from stores and markets in South Eastern and South Western Nigeria and evaluated for occurrence of five major mycotoxins- aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), Fumonisin B2 (FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA).
Place and Duration of Study: The study was part of a Masters dissertation developed in the Food, Environment and Health Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg.
Methodology: Imploring three different extraction procedures, mycotoxin occurrence and levels were determined via thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Results: Results showed high incidences of all five mycotoxins in both samples with OTA highest in rice samples (92.7%), while AFs and FB1 had highest incidence in maize samples (94.9%). Data from HPLC analysis of rice and maize samples showed different concentration range of mycotoxins AFs (0.01-6.50 µg/kg and 0.07-109.78 µg/kg); OTA (0.7-180.9 µg/kg, 0.6-79.0 µg/kg; FB1 (0.9-59.6 µg/kg, 10.0-3644.0 µg/kg); ZEA (0.7-570.6 µg/kg, 1.8-652.3 µg/kg) and DON (0.1-0.7 µg/kg, 0.1-0.7 µg/kg) respectively.
Conclusion: Mycotoxins concentration determined in the food samples were above Nigerian and European Union (EU) set limits. The co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in food samples analysed in this study gives further awareness to the health risks consumers of these food commodities are exposed to. The study also contributes to research being done in Nigeria in other to understand the degree of mycotoxins contamination of food consumed by the populace.
Aim: Based on the traditional and scientific claims of intra-dermal antiplasmodial activity of bee stings, its effect on liver and serum enzymes in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice were investigated.
Methodology: Twenty albino mice were intra-peritoneally infected with P. berghei and divided into four animals per group. Group I was set up as negative control (parasitized untreated), group II as parasitized treated with 5 mg chloroquine/kg body weight, group III as suppressive treated, group IV as curative treated and group five as not parasitized not treated.
Results: The results of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) of the infected treated with chloroquine shows significant increase when compared to other experimental groups (p˂ 0.05). Whereas, there was increase in liver AST in group II, group III and group IV when compared to not parasitized not treated (p˂ 0.05). Also, there was significant decrease in liver ALT activity in all the experimental groups. The serum and liver gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) showed no significant difference (p<0.05) in the curative and suppressive groups when compared to the standard drug (chloroquine). Whereas, parasitized not treated group shows significant increase (p<0.05) in the liver GGT and ALP when compared with other experimental groups. Therefore, these increases in specific activity of the parasitized untreated group might be due to infection.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that bee sting have ameliorative effect against changes caused by P. berghei.