Open Access Minireview Article

Diversity of Globins in Myxobacteria

Prakash C. Mishra, Santosh Kumar Singh; Ramandeep Kaur

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 92-103
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/15532

Diversity of Globins in Myxobacteria

Globins are heme proteins that are capable of reversible oxygen binding. All globins can be classified into three families: the M (myoglobin-like), S (sensor) and T (truncated) globins.  M and S globins exhibit the canonical 3/3 α-helical fold, and T globins are characterized by a 2/2 α-helical fold. Globins in the genomes of myxobacteria have not been characterized till date. Myxobacteria have very large genomes relative to other bacteria and have a unique life cycle that involves the aggregation of cells into fruiting bodies under starvation conditions. The diversity of globin like sequences in 14 sequenced genomes of myxobacteria is presented in this review. In myxobacterial globins some unusual domain architectures are identified that have not been characterized in bacteria so far; these are: i) a unique chimeric group I 2/2 HbN in the genome of Corallococcus coralloides DSM 2259; ii) M globin chimera harboring a central and a C-terminal globin domain in Sorangium cellulosum ‘so ce 56’ and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1 respectively; iii) two tandem globin domains on the same M globin polypeptide in the genomes of Sorangium cellulosum.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance with Lipid Profile Test to Evaluate Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Thyroid Disorder Patients

Niraj Chaudhary, Kamala Subedi, Mina Neupane, Sushma Pun, Janesh Thapa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 104-112
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/14967

Aims: To find out role of insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with lipid profile test in evaluation of cardiovascular disease risk in thyroid disorder patients.

Study Design: An analytical case control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, School of Health and Allied Sciences, Pokhara University, between November 2013 and February 2014.

Methodology: The study encompassed of 90 subjects; 30 randomly selected healthy volunteers and 30 Hypothyroid and 30 Hyperthyroid subjects selected from different Hospital of Pokhara. The participants were identified as hypothyroid and hyperthyroid relying in serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels, clinical history and medication. The participants were asked to fill the questionnaire, 5 ml of the venous blood was collected the measurement of thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4 and TSH), serum lipid profile (TC, TG, HDL, LDL, VLDL) and serum Insulin.

Results: The mean value of FT3, FT4, TSH of control subjects were 2.5±0.63 (pg/ml), 1.39±0.28 (ng/dl), 2.82±1.75 (umol/ml), hyperthyroid subjects were 2.18±0.88 (pg/ml), 0.96±0.32 (ng/dl), 24.28±19.8 (umol/ml) and hypothyroid subjects were 4.52±1.72 (pg/ml), 3.36±3.61 (ng/dl), 0.156±0.14 (umol/ml) respectively. The mean value of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol and vary low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were greatly increased in hypothyroid subjects 240 (mg/dl), 194.7(mg/dl), 49.63, 151.51 and 38.78 (mg/dl) respectively as compared to control 166.59 (mg/dl), 151.07 (mg/dl), 50.23, 86.05 and 30.21 (mg/dl) respectively and hyperthyroid subjects 62.13 (mg/dl), 131.61(mg/dl), 45.o7, 90.75 and 26.32 (mg/dl) respectively. An increase in serum insulin level is in both hypothyroid 32.78 (uIU/mL) and hyperthyroid 30.08 (uIU/mL). HOMA-IR was significantly associated with TC, TG and LDL. Spearman’s correlation analysis of insulin with TC, LDL Cholesterol, TG and VLDL that of HOMA-IR with TC and LDL while insulin with TC /HDL ratio, LDL Cholesterol and TC also HOMA-IR with TC /HDL and LDL Cholesterol shows significant correlation.

Conclusion: Thyroid dysfunction has a great impact on lipid profile as well as a number of other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. There is a close relation between IR and thyroid hormones. The insulin resistance in present in hypo and hyperthyroid patients and thyroid dysfunctions induce significant changes in lipid profile. Therefore estimation of traditional lipid profile along with some additional parameters like serum insulin, IR helps to assess the thyroid status. Lipid profile test along with insulin and HOMA-IR can also help in the early evaluation of possible risk of CVD in thyroid disorder patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Changes in Some Liver Function and Haematological Parameters in MSG Fed Rats

H. O. Akanya, S. Peter, I. F. Ossamulu, H. Y. Adeyemi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 113-120
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/15433

Evaluation of the Changes in Some Liver Function and Haematological Parameters in MSG Fed Rats

The effect of Monosodium glutamate (MSG) was evaluated on hepatic functions and haematological parameters in adult Wistar albino rats. The rats were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of five rats each. Group 1 served as the control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed diets supplemented with MSG at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0% per Kg of diet respectively. Following the 28 days of feeding, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for analyses. The haematological parameters except PCV were estimated using haematocytometer while the biochemical parameters were determined using Randox enzymatic kit. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in PCV, WBC, RBC, total protein, albumin, direct and conjugated bilirubin in the rats fed with MSG at all levels of supplementation when compared with the control group. The Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were increased with increase level of MSG and ranged from 35.00±0.17 - 59.00±1.23 U/L and 6.4-11.9 U/L respectively. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the levels of both serum ALP and ALT activities in the group fed 0.5% MSG when compared with the control group while there were significant (p>0.05) increase in the other treatment groups (1 and 5% MSG supplemented diets groups). The results therefore suggest that MSG at the levels of supplementation in the diets of the rats had no effect on the haematological indices but increased the liver function enzymes in the serum as the level of MSG increased in the diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Screening of Some Schiff Bases as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

Shipra Baluja, Sumitra Chanda

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 121-129
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/3613

Synthesis, Characterization and Screening of Some Schiff Bases as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

Schiff bases derived from 4-amino antipyrene were prepared, and IR and NMR spectral analysis characterized their structure.  The Schiff bases produced were (1) 4-((4-chlorobenzylidine)amino)-1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3(2H)-one. [SBS-1], (2) 4-((4-hydroxybenzylidine)amino)-1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3(2H)-one. [SBS-2], (3)1,5-dimethyl-2phenyl-4-((3- phenylallylidine)amino) -1H-pyrazole-3(2H)-one. [SBS-3], (4)4-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidine)amino)-1,5- dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3(2H)-one. [SBS-4], (5) 4-(benzylidineamino)-1,5 -dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3(2H)-one. [SBS-5], (6) 4-((furan-2-ylmethelene)amino)-1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3(2H)-one. [SBS-6] and (7) 4-((4-methoxybenzylidine)amino)-1,5- dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3(2H)-one. [SBS-7]. The antibacterial activity was studied against S. subfava NCIM 2178, B. megaterium ATCC 9885, P. pseudoalcaligenes ATCC 17440, P. vulgaris NCTC 8313, C. freundii ATCC 10787 and E. aerogenes ATCC 13048.  The antibacterial activity was done using Agar Ditch method. The antibacterial activity was evaluated in two polar solvents DMSO and DMF. A differential effect of the compounds extracted in a particular solvent (DMSO/DMF) inhibited different bacteria to a different level. It supports the earlier conclusion that antibacterial activity is dependent on molecular structure of the compound, solvent used and the bacterial strain under consideration. However, from the present results, it appears that cinnamaldehyde as side chain with 4-amino antipyrene as central ligand and DMF as a solvent to be best in inhibiting the studied bacterial strains.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Fluorescent Detection of Specific DNA Sequences Related to Toxoplasma gondii Based on Magnetic Fluorescent Nanoparticles Fe3O4/CdTe Biosensor

Lei He, Liusong Ni, Xueping Zhang, Chen Zhang, Shichao Xu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 130-139
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/15254

Fluorescent Detection of Specific DNA Sequences Related to Toxoplasma gondii Based on Magnetic Fluorescent Nanoparticles Fe3O4/CdTe Biosensor

Magnetic fluorescent nanoparticles (Fe3O4/CdTe) were prepared in this work and applied for Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection. First, CdTe quantum dots were synthesized with 3-mercaptopropionic (MPA) capped. Fe3O4 magnetic particles were prepared by hydrothermal method with NaOH as precipitator, and they were surfacely modified with silane coupling agent (KH550). After then, the MPA-capped CdTe QDs were immobilized on the Fe3O4 particles surface via electrostatic interaction, and the Fe3O4/CdTe particles were prepared with the average size of 10 nm. The DNA sensing probe was fabricated through labeling a stem-loop Toxoplasma gondii DNA oligonucleotides with Fe3O4/CdTe (donor) at the 5′ end and BHQ2 (acceptor) at 3′ end, respectively. The assembly prosess was verified by UV-Vis, TEM, IR, XRD etc. The sensitivity characterization of the molecular beacon probe was performed by fluorescence spectrum (FS) with a detection limit of 8.339x10-9M. This chemical strategy can be further applied to prepare the magnetic nanoparticles for DNA detection.