Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-diarrhea Potential and Acute Toxicity Studies of Methanolic Extract of Vernonia amygdalina and Cymbopogon citratus against Castor Oil Induced Diarrhea Model in Rats

Osheke Shekins Okere, Janet Olayemi Sangodele, Oluwatosin Grace Tade, Olabisi T. Obafemi, John Adeolu Falode

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/12293

Anti-diarrhea Potential and Acute Toxicity Studies of Methanolic Extract of Vernonia amygdalina and Cymbopogon citratus against Castor Oil Induced Diarrhea Model in Rats

Diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries and second most common cause of infant mortality worldwide. The effect of a methanolic leaf extract of Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) on Castor oil-induced diarrhea was investigated. Fifty (50) rats between 120-227g were induced with castor oil for development of diarrhea. They were divided into two sub-groups of twenty-five (25) subsequently divided into five groups treated with 2 mg/kg loperamide, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg respectively. The cumulative frequencies of wet and formed stools were noted on the 3rd - 6th hour. It was observed that 400 mg/kg body weight of the extracts reduced the fecal spots compared to 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight. Plant extracts were found to be non-toxic. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract revealed the presence of some bioactive components which may be responsible for the anti-diarrhea properties observed in this study. The above findings suggested that the methanolic extracts contain active constituents that have anti-diarrhea activities that may lead to its use in treating diarrhea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Costus afer on Lipid Profile and Hepatic Damage in Ethanol - Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

Ayakeme Tonkiri, E. B. Essien, J. O. Akaninwor, Ronami S. Ogbomade

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 53-61
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/14577

Aim: The study is to investigate the impact of Costus afer methanolic stem extract on lipid metabolic profiles and bilirubin levels in alcohol-induced liver cirrhosis progression in rats.

Materials and Methods: Male wistar strain albino rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control (normal feed and water only), Costus afer control (CA), Ethanol control (Ethanol), ethanol + Costus afer (60mg) treated rats (CA + ETHANOL) and ethanol + Costus afer (120mg) treated rats (CACA + ETHANOL). Serum levels of lipids and bilirubin were measured.

Results: The result showed that ethanol only administration caused triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and bilirubin to increase by 46.1%, 64.3%, 10.71% and 0.18% respectively compared to control rats (p<0.05). High density lipoprotein was shown to have decreased by 11.2% compared to the control.

Conclusion: Evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of complications and alcoholic diseases. Co-treatment with the extract modestly modulates the effect of ethanol to near normal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clostridium thermocellum Cel5L – Cloning and Characterization of a New, Thermostable GH5 Cellulase

Phillip J. Brumm, Spencer Hermanson, Krishne Gowda, Dan Xie, David A. Mead

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 62-74
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/15199

Clostridium thermocellum Cel5L – Cloning and Characterization of a New, Thermostable GH5 Cellulase   

Aims: Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium that ferments cellulose and produces ethanol.  While many of the predicted cellulases have been characterized from C. thermocellum, characterization of additional members is still needed to unravel the function of these enzymes. 

Study Design: This report describes the first cloning, expression, characterization, and evaluation in cellulose degradation of Clostridium thermocellum Cel5L as well as its relationship to other cellulases. 

Results: Cel5L, a 526 amino acid protein that shows low homology to other cellulases of C. thermocellum, possesses both endo and exo activity on b-glucan, carboxymethylcellulose, and cellooligosaccharides; the enzyme does not hydrolyze xylan, xyloglucan or glucomannan. When combined with exo-cellulases and b-glucosidase, Cel5L generates more glucose from cellulose than other tested C. thermocellum GH5 cellulases, which is surprising due to the lack of an annotated carbohydrate binding module. The Cel5L phylogenetic tree shows orthologs in both mesophilic and thermophilic cellulose degraders. 

Conclusion: The presence of these orthologs in a variety of molecular constructs demonstrates the importance of Cel5L and its orthologs in cellulose degradation, both in C. thermocellum as well as other gram-positive cellulose degraders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Mineral Analysis of Grewia mollis Stems Bark

Sarah Haruna Sambo, Ahmed Olatunde, Sarah Midong Shaltoe

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 75-81
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/14162

Aims: Aqueous extract of Grewia mollis stem bark was analyzed for its phytochemical constituents and mineral elements.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Jos, Jos, between June 2013 and July 2013.

Methodology: The phytochemical screening and mineral composition of the stem bark was carried out using methods by Sofowora, Trease and Evans, Harborne and Oshodi.

Results: The phytochemical screening of the stem bark showed the presence of Tannins, Saponins, Cardiac glycosides, Flavonoids, Steroids, Phenols and Resins. Alkaloids and Carbohydrates were not detected in the stem bark of the plant. Mineral analysis showed that the stem bark contains among others Manganese (1.899 g/100g), Zinc (0.375 g/100g), Magnesium (287.060 g/100g), Iron (47.941 g/100g), Copper (0.270 g/100g) and Lead (0.206 g/100g).

Conclusion: The phytochemical and mineral compositions of Grewia mollis stem bark may account for varied ethno-pharmacological uses of the plant in herbal medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Evaluation of Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) Biodiesel-Contaminated Catfish on Kidney of Albino Rats

Adeyemi Olalekan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 82-91
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2015/15169

Aim: To assess the toxicological and histopathological effects of feed formulated with catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to palm kernel oil (PKO) biodiesel on kidney in albino rat.

Study Design: Randomized experimental controlled study

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Environmental Science laboratory of Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun between February and June, 2014.

Methodology: A total of 30 albino rats weighing 49 to 53 g and within the age range of 4-6 weeks were used for this study. Experimental rats were grouped into three, namely; Control, BD0.1 and BD0.25 placed on feed formulated with catfish exposed to borehole water mixed with different concentrations of PKO biodiesel (0 %v/v, 0.1 %v/v, 0.25 %v/v) for 30 days. Haematological properties, indices of oxidative stress, some enzymes of the kidney and selected serum indices of kidney functions (urea, creatinine, Na+ and K+) were measured. Tissue activity of ALP, ACP, LDH, CAT, GST and SOD were also estimated using conventional methods. Analyses were carried out using the SPSS software package (version11.5) and the results are expressed as mean ± SEM.

Results: The study showed that animals fed with fish exposed to PKO biodiesel significantly had reduced relative kidney weight while serum levels of Na+, K+, urea, creatinine and kidney concentration of malodialdehyde (MDA) were elevated significantly (p<0.05) when compared with the controls. Activities of selected enzymes of kidney studied were significantly lower in BD0.1 and BD0.25 rats relative to the control. Particularly, the kidney activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of control, and rats fed with feed formulated with BD0.1 and BD0.25 are 188.24 ± 6.68, 156.88 ± 9.84, 149.02 ± 6.77 U/mg protein, respectively. Histological examination revealed proliferation of inflammatory cells in the kidney of experimental rat.

Conclusion: Data from this study suggested that consumption of catfish exposed to PKO biodiesel can compromise renal integrity, reduce renal performance, subject the kidney to oxidative stress and inflict varying degree of inflammation on cellular architecture of the kidney.