Reduction of Plasma Adiponectin in Egyptian Obese Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Background: Obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia are the most significant risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children, and a major cause of liver-related morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and fasting insulin in obese children with NAFLD to explore the role of adiponectin in the pathogenesis of this disease.
Materials and Methods: The fasting serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, glucose, insulin, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, GGT and CRP were measured in a group of 50 NAFLD children after making ultrasonography and 40 other participants were considered as a control group with comparable age, sex and body-mass index.
Results: Plasma adiponectin was found significantly low in NAFLD children than its level in control group (3.23 2.5 vs 11.0 2.95 ng/dl). Moreover, NAFLD group had significantly higher insulin resistance, fasting insulin 11.4 4.9 vs 4.73.1 mu/l levels in comparison with control group. Regarding serum leptin, there was no significant difference. An inverse correlation was observed between adiponectin and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), fasting insulin, leptin, triglycerides, ALT, AST, GGT and BMI.
Conclusion: This data supports a role for low circulating adiponectin value in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its association with insulin resistance.
Aim: This study aimed at investigating the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Cissampelos mucronata on testicular function indices in male wistar rats (Rattus novergicus).
Methodology: A total of 20 rats, grouped into four, with a group consisting of five rats were used for the study. The groups were a control administered 1.0 mL of distilled water and three other groups that were respectively administered - 1.0 mL of 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg body weight of the plant extract. The different groups were administered plant extract orally for 14 days, using metal oropharyngeal cannula.
Results: The results revealed a significant increase (P <0.05) in body weight, testes-body weight ratio, cholesterol and glycogen concentrations at all the doses except at 1200 mg/kg body weight of the animals where decreased glycogen level was observed. There was also significant decrease (P <0.05) in the concentrations of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and total testicular protein especially in rats administered with 1200 mg/kg body weight of extract while there was no significant change in the activities of gamma glutamyl transferase. Serum testosterone concentration was observed to decrease significantly (P <0.05) only in the rats administered with 300 mg/kg body weight of extract.
Conclusion: The results indicate anti-androgenic and anti-steroidogenic activities of Cissampelos mucronata aqueous leaf extract on males.
Aims: This study aimed to determine the role of L-arginine on eNOS expression and its role on the level of some antioxidants as reduced glutathione and catalase in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Study Design: Ninety adult male albino rats were divided into three (3) groups of thirty rats (30) each: Group (I): Control group, Group (II): Diabetic control group, Group (III): L-arginine treatment group. The second and the third groups were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of 80 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate, while L-arginine (100 mg/kg in sterile 0.9% Nacl) was given orally to rats in group III for one week before alloxan injection, and a further four weeks after induction of diabetes. The animals were sacrificed and blood collected for the determination of biochemical and antioxidant markers. Heart tissues were homogenized for determination of expression of eNOS gene by RT- PCR.
Results: The study showed that L-arginine increases HDL, reduces glutathione and catalase and decreases LDL, TAG, Cholesterol and MDA. It also increased the expression of eNOS in heart tissues of diabetic rats.
A Comparative Analysis of Lipid Profile among Rural and Urban School Going Male Adolescents in Katsina State, Nigeria
Aim: The study is aimed at analyzing blood samples from 484 male school going adolescents; of which 263 were randomly selected from a public school in Katsina metropolis (urban setting) and 221 from a public school in Batsari (rural setting) for the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CH), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CH) and triacyl glycerol (TG) in order to ascertain a risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among male adolescents from urban and rural settings aged between 12-18 years attending public secondary schools in Katsina State- Nigeria to assess their nutritional status.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano-Nigeria. December 2008-April 2009.
Methodology: We determined the body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile of male school going adolescents. An end point colorimetric method was used to estimate serum total cholesterol. Test kits obtainable from Randox Laboratories Limited were used to estimate serum HDL-cholesterol, serum LDL-cholesterol and triacyl glycerol. Results obtained are presented as mean±standard deviation. Statistical analyses were carried out using Instat statistical package.
Results: The results indicate that the urban male adolescents have a significantly higher (p<0.05) mean BMI, mean serum TC, mean serum LDL-CH and mean serum TG values than the rural male adolescents. This difference cuts across all age groups. Mean BMI values recorded for both the rural and urban male adolescents correspond to mild thinness on the BMI reference scale.
Conclusion: The nutritional and health status of the adolescent subjects in this study reflects a high percentage of underweight and a low risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Coconut water, a natural nutritious beverage that contains several biologically active chemical substances, is used in the management/treatment of several disorders in Eastern Nigeria. This study was set up to evaluate the antioxidant potential of coconut water and its effect on the cardiovascular system in albino rats. Twenty five adult male albino rats, used in this work, were placed into five groups (A, B, C, D and E), of five rats per group. Groups A, B, C and D were administered orally with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ml/kg body weight respectively of the coconut water for fourteen consecutive days. Group E was the control. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were used to investigate antioxidant activity of the coconut water, while lipid profile was determined as an index of its cardiovascular effect. GPX and SOD activity was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the test groups than in untreated group, while MDA levels decreased significantly (P< 0.05) in the treated groups relative to the control. There was a significant reduction (P< 0.05) in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein, while high density lipoproteins increased significantly (P< 0.05) in the test animals relative to the control. These observations were found to be linearly dose-dependent. These results may be due to the chemical constituents of the coconut water, and could be partly responsible for its application in the management of some disorders.