Open Access Minireview Article

Emerging Role of Exosomal Secretory Pathway in Human Tumour Virus Pathogenesis

Neetu R. Kapoor, Vijay Kumar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 653-665
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/9370

Viruses are well known for their ability to hijack and manipulate the host cellular machinery to ensure immune evasion, viral survival and pathogenesis. Most animal viruses exhibit exclusive tropism and thus, infect only specific target cells. However, reports on the existence of virions and viral components in non-target cells suggest alternative mechanisms of viral spread. Studies on microvesicles and exosomes promise to provide justification for the presence of viruses at unrelated cell types. Exosomes have attracted the attention of not only cell biologists but also virologists as these vesicles can transport and deliver bioactive information (RNA, proteins, microRNA etc. including virus specific components from infected cells) to unrelated cell types and have the potential to regulate target cell function. Recent studies suggest that viruses can manipulate and hijack the exosome biogenesis and secretory pathway to manipulate the host microenvironment, evade immune response and increase viral accessibility. Here, we review the existing literature on viral interference and exploitation of exosome secretory mechanisms and correlate it with the increased virulence and spread of viruses in the host. Further, we discuss the prospects of exosomes as emerging biomarkers for virus induced     pathology, potential of exosomes as delivery vehicles and also the new perspective to viral mediated pathogenesis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-venom Activity of Mucuna pruriens Leaves Extract Against Cobra Snake (Naja hannah) Venom

Okere O. Shekins, Gabriel O. Anyanwu, Philip M. Nmadu, Olufunsho D. Olowoniyi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 470-480
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/10394

Aim: The study was done to investigate the anti-venom activity of Mucuna pruriens leaves extract against cobra snake (Naja hannah) venom.

Study Design: The mice were randomly grouped into six groups (A, B, C, D, E, and F) of five rats each. Group A served as the normal control (no induction), and the mice in the group were given normal saline (1ml/kg/body weight).Group B served as the test control (snake venom was induced but no treatment administered), Group C served as the standard control (snake venom was induced and treated with antivenin, a standard drug), Group D, E and F were all induced with the cobra snake venom and treated with ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. pruriens for 14 days.

Methodology: The induction with cobra snake venom was done with 0.075mg/kg b.w of venom and thereafter the treatment with M. pruriens extract for Group D, E and F were done with 40 mg/ kg, 60 mg/ kg and 80 mg/ kg respectively intraperitoneally in the mice. Serum blood of the animals was used to assay for total cholesterol, bilirubin, AST, ALT, GSH and catalase levels after 14days.

Result: The injection of crude venom of cobra snake (Naja hannah) caused an increase in cholesterol, AST, ALT, bilirubin, catalase and glutathione in envenomated mice which significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to all the controls after 14 days of treatment with the extract.

Conclusion: The results suggests that 80 mg/ kg of the plant extract is more effective than the standard drug,  therefore M. pruriens leaves has a greater anti-venom potential for curing snake bite, than antivenin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Black Cumin Seed (Nigella sativa) in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

S. M. El-Bahr, A. A. Al-Azraqi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 481-492
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/11120

Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) either alone or in combination on blood glucose concentration, body weight, water and food intake and selected biochemical parameters of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: Thirty five healthy adult albino rats kept on ordinary ration, received water ad libitum and divided into five groups (7 rats in each). Rats of first and second groups were non diabetic and diabetic respectively. Rats of 3-5 groups were diabetic and received Turmeric (1g/kg b.wt.), Black cumin seed (2g/kg b.wt.), half dose of black cumin seed and Turmeric as a mixture, respectively. All treatments were orally administered by intra-gastric intubations once a day for six weeks.

Results: The present study revealed that, STZ experimental diabetes induced significant elevation of glucose level, water and food intake, TAG and total cholesterol level with significant reduction of body weight gain of the affected rats. However, dietary supplementation of either Turmeric or Black cumin seed significantly (P≤0.05) corrected the values of these parameters near to control levels. In addition, liver and kidney function were disturbed in STZ-diabetic rats and restored whenever treated with the examined medicinal plants.

Conclusion: The present study can concluded that, dietary supplementation of either Turmeric or Black seed to diabetic rats were effective in reducing blood glucose, water and food intake, TAG and cholesterol accompanied by an increase in body weight gain. Regarding to Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, blood glucose level and TAG level, Turmeric was more effective than black cumin seed and mixture of both plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Serum Adiponectin, IL-6 and Hs CRP in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Egyptian Patients

Amal Ahmed Mohamed, Wafaa Gh. Shousha, Olfat Shaker, Mohamed El-Sayed Mahdy, Eman M. A. Ibrahim, Seham Mohmoud, Ahmed khairalla

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 493-504
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/10240

Scientific Background: Non alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is accumulation of fat in the liver cells of peoples who drink little or no alcohol causing mild steatosis with mostly no signs, symptoms or complication but this may progress to steatohepatitis (NASH) and may liver cirrhosis then failure. NAFLD is recognized as the most common type of chronic liver disease in Western countries and the leading cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis. Insulin resistance (IR) is a key factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the latter being considered as the hepatic component of IR or metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although the pathogenesis of NAFLD is not fully elucidated, a complex interaction between adipokines and cytokines produced by adipocytes and/or inflammatory cells infiltrating adipose tissue appears to play a crucial role in MetS and NAFLD and its progress.  A number of factors are linked with NAFLD such as obesity, type 2 diabetis mellitus (T2DM), hyperlipidemia, gastric bypass, and its progress to NASH correlate with certain cytokines secreted like adiponectin, interlukin-6 (IL-6), and C- reactive protein CRP. Adiponectin is a novel adipocyte-specific protein, which, it has been suggested, plays a role in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. The role of (IL-6) in liver pathology is very complex, and its participation in the development of NAFLD remains unclear. IL-6 is a key element in the acute phase response, mediating the synthesis of several acute phase proteins (such as CRP and serum amyloid A). Thus, we cannot exclude the possibility that IL-6 might also play an indirect deleterious role in NAFLD pathogenesis. In diet-induced obese mice, treatment with IL-6 antibodies improved sensitivity to insulin.

Objective: This study aim is to evaluate the level of adiponectin, IL-6 and CRP in Egyptian patients with NAFLD.

Methods: This study was conducted on 2 groups 104 NAFLD as diagnosed by ultrasound examination and 21 healthy participants as control group.  All the subjects were subjected to an abdominal ultrasonography, liver enzymes ALT & AST, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, cholesterol, CRP, IL-6 & Adiponectin).

Results: Plasma adiponectin levels were significantly lower in NAFLD patients than control gp (3.05±2.65μg/ml vs 10.52±3.35 (μg/ml). IL-6 level was higher in NAFLD than control gp but not significant (114.24±22.32pg/ml vs 104.9±19.98pg/ml). CRP was significantly higher in NAFLD than control gp (17.86±11.59mg/L vs 5.4±3.81mg/L). Adiponectin ROC curve showed an AUROC curve in NAFLD gp (0.918 p=0.0001). IL-6 ROC curve showed an AUROC curve in NAFLD gp (0.703 p=0.0003). CRP ROC curve showed an AUROC curve in NAFLD gp (0.853 p=0.0001).

Conclusion: Patients with NAFLD have lower adiponectin levels and higher IL-6 and CRP levels compared with their control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adenosine Triphosphatase Activities of Zea Mays and Vigna unguiculata Exposed to Different Crude Oil Fractions

O. Olubodun Stella, E. Eriyamremu George

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 505-516
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/7118

This study was carried out to investigate the activities of some adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) in the radicle of maize and cowpea grown in soils contaminated with crude oil and its fractions. Total ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, Na+/K+ ATPase and Mg2+ ATPase activities were evaluated. Cowpea and maize seeds were planted in polythene bags containing 500g of sandy loam soil each. The soils used had no known history of crude oil contamination and the study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, University of Benin garden and laboratory. A total of 660 bags were used in the study. Of these, 60 bags were used for planting maize and cowpea (30 bags for each plant) in soils not contaminated, which served as controls for the plants and another 60 bags with soils from Ubeji (a crude oil contaminated site in, Delta State, Nigeria) was planted maize or cowpea (30 for each plant).  The remaining 540 bags had soils that were contaminated with 2%, 5%, or 10% whole crude oil or its water soluble or water insoluble fraction, and in it were planted either maize or cowpea and they served as the test groups. The experiment lasted for a period of one month. Seedlings in 10 bags from each group of 30 bags were harvested after 7, 14, or 21 days post germination and the activities of ATPases were determined. The data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistic of variance analysis.

In a general sense, contamination of soils with crude oil or its fractions or in Ubeji significantly increased (P<.01) the activities of total ATPase, Ca2+-, Mg2+-, and Na+/K+-ATPases of cowpea compared with the uncontaminated control.  In maize the effect of crude oil was mixed however Mg2+- ATPases was consistently reduced with crude oil contamination. The study indicated that crude oil and its fraction affects the activities of adenosine triphosphatases in ways which are species related.

Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Analysis of Phytocompounds of Leaf and Stem of Marsilea quadrifolia (L.)

Karikalan Gopalakrishnan, Rajangam Udayakumar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 517-526
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/11350

Objective: To investigate the phytochemical constituents of methanolic extracts of leaf and stem of Marsilea quadrifolia (Linn.).

Methods: The methanolic leaf and stem extracts of M. quadrifolia were prepared by standard procedure and concentrated at 40ºC using hot air oven. The concentrated methanolic extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis using GC-MS.

Results: The GC-MS analyes showed  that the presence of 39 phytocompounds in the methanolic extract of leaf of M. quadrifolia  including 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-(21.41%); n-Hexadecanoic acid (17.47%); 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid,methylester (Z,Z,Z)-(12.96%); 2-Furancarboxaldehyde,5-(hydroxyl   methyl)-(9.39%) and 9,12,15-Octadecatrien-1-ol (Z,Z,Z)-(3.54%). The methanolic extract of stem of             M. quadrifolia revealed that the presence of 29 bioactive compounds including 2-Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-(60.42%); 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2, 3-dihydro-3, 5-di hydroxyl-6-methyl-(13.88%); n-Hexadecanoic acid-(6.00%); 6-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-(2.69%) and Furfural-(2.23%).

Conclusions: The result of the GC-MS analysis showed that the methanolic extract of       M. quadrifolia contains many pharmacologically important bioactive compounds. However M. quadrifolia is an important medicinal plant and used in the traditional system of medicine to cure many diseases including diabetes mellitus. So there are need of further studies to isolate and identify the specific phytocompound involved in controlling diseases and ultimately which may lead to drug development. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Serum Iron, Manganese and Cu/Zn Ratio in the Course of falciparum Malaria among Ivorian Patients (Côte d’Ivoire)

Kolia K. Innocent, M’boh G. Melaine, Bagré Issa, Djaman A. Joseph

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 527-535
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/10256

Objectives: The question of interaction between endemic malaria infection and nutritional status of the host is always controversial and their relationship remains difficult to establish. Furthermore, the nutritional requirements of the host include some trace elements that are also essential for malaria parasite. The aim of this work was to assess serum titers of iron, manganese and Cu/Zn ratio, an indicator of oxidative stress during Falciparum malaria among ivorian patients.

Design & Methods: The study was conducted between January and June 2013 among 61 malaria infected subjects and 57 uninfected controls aged 8months to 45years.  These were previously evaluated about their dietary habits during diagnosis by thick and thin blood smear. For each patient, serum titres of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry followed by determination of Cu/Zn ratio which is an indicator of oxidative stress.

Results: The mean of iron titers was of 0.75±0.10mg/L in malaria infected patients compared to 0.94±0.09mg/L in controls. Serum iron progressively decreased as parasitæmia increased, with the lowest mean value (0.46±0.06mg/L) observed when parasite density was >40000/µL. The serum variations of zinc, copper and manganese were not significant. However, the serum titers of zinc and copper in both groups studied were lower than the references; while manganese titer was high.

Conclusion: This study shows that Falciparum malaria decreases the serum iron and results in significantly lower iron at high parasitæmia. However, there was no significant variation in oxidative stress with parasitæmia. The fact that serum titers of zinc and copper in both the malaria infected subjects and the control group were lower than the reference levels raises the question of bioavailability and insufficient nutritional intake of these micronutrients, which may be a subject of further study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effects of Antidiabetic Drug, Metformin and Deferoxamine, on Serum Lipids, Serum Ferritin and Endocrine Indicators of Diabetes Mellitus Complications in Sreptozotocin Diabetic Rats

P. O. Okonkwo, ZSC Okoye

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 536-549
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/11811

Aims: Increasing evidence has indicated that iron overload not only increases risks of insulin resistance and diabetes, but also causes cardiovascular diseases in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. The present study compared the effects of metformin (met) and deferoxamine (DFX) on the serum lipids, serum ferritin and endocrine indicators of diabetes mellitus complications in streptozotocin experimental diabetes in rats.

Study Design: Experimental diabetes was induced in overnight fasted rats by a single dose i.p each of nicotinamide and, 15min after, STZ followed by administration of the anti-diabetic drugs, met (os, 250mg/kg b.wt) and DFX (i.p,150mg/kg b.wt), daily for 14 days. Blood and histological samples were collected and prepared for biochemical and histopathological analysis of indicators of cytotoxic side effects. Results were analysed statistically by Student t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: Both drugs caused progressively increased hypoglycaemic effect with repeated doses. However, Metformin showed markedly higher potency in hypoglycaemic activity than DFX. STZ diabetes caused hyperlipidaemic effect with respect to lipid profile parameters except HDL and treatment with antidiabetic drugs metformin and deferoxamine reversed the hyperlipidaemic effect. On the other hand, STZ caused hypolipidaemic effect with respect to HDL but the antidiabetic drugs reversed it. However, DFX is more potent than metformin in reversing the effect of STZ diabetes on HDL. STZ diabetes induced elevation of serum ferritin while inducing reduction in serum insulin level. Metformin treatment reversed the adverse effects of STZ on insulin secretion only, whereas, DFX significantly reversed the adverse side effects of STZ on both serum ferritin and serum insulin. However, metformin-treatment and DFX-treatment exhibited comparable potency in their effects on insulin secretion.

Conclusion: Evidence from histological study of the pancreas suggests that both metformin and DFX were sufficiently biologically significant to effectively reverse the disruptic effects on the pancreatic exocrine tissue of diabetic rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity Phenolics Flavonoids and Proanthocyanidins Content of Senecio anteuphorbium

Fatima Azzahra Lahlou, Fouzia Hmimid, Mohammed Loutfi, Noureddine Bourhim

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 550-558
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/8179

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Senecio anteuphorbium and to determine total phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins content of this plant from Southern Anti-Atlas of Morocco. Moreover the effect of solvent and heat was also investigated.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of biology, laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty of Sciences, University Hassan II, between August 2013 and November 2013.

Methodology: Senecio anteuphorbium were subjected to a decoction, maceration (with both water and methanol) and soxhlet extraction. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging tests were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Folin- Ciocalteau reagent serves to determine total phenolic content, aluminium trichloride method for flavonoids and a mixture of vanillin and hydrochloric acid for proanthocyanidins; employing colorimetric method. 

Results: Results obtained revealed that Senecio anteuphorbium possesses a high antioxidant capacity that has a positive correlation with quantified phytochemicals (R2=0.96/0.9/0.81). Polyphenols ranged from 21.53±1.03mg GAE/ gE or 20.38±0.76 mg TAE/gE to 2.46±0.11 GAE/ gE or 2.33±0.09mg TAE/gE, flavonoids registered the highest amount: 39.47±1.01mg RE/gE or 26.59±0.24mg QE/gE, followed by proanthocyanidins: 36.66 ±1.26 mgCE/gE. In addition when methanol is combined with temperature (80ºC), it seems to be the appropriate method to extract antioxidant compounds.

Conclusion: The present results reveal that Senecio anteuphorbium is a potent source of natural antioxidants, containing a mixture of phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin compounds that could have a great importance as therapeutic agents in preventing oxidative damages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alcohol Induced Lipid DYS-homeostasis in the Prefrontal Cortex of Diabetic Rats

Shallie Philemon Dauda, Adebukola Adenuga, Adejumo Esther Ngozi, Ihyar Alamun Clement, Shotunde Damilola Faith, Esegbue Peters

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 559-567
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/6380

Aim: To investigate the potential importance of the association between alcohol consumption, diabetes andlipid homeostasisin the prefrontal cortex.

Study Design: Twenty-four adult rats were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each viz; Group 1- Control, given rat pellets and water ad libitum; Group 2- Diabetic, diabetes was induced with a single dosage of 120mg/kg body weight followed by 50mg/kg body weight of alloxan weekly. Group 3- Diabetic and low alcohol intake (9% w/w). Group 4- Diabetic and high alcohol intake (20% w/w).

Place and Duration of Study: This work was carried out in the Department of Anatomy; Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria between February and April, 2012.

Methodology: The skull was dissected and the brain removed and the prefrontal       cortex excised, homogenized, centrifuged and the supernatant analyzed for lipid profile, AST and ALT.

Results: Diabetes elevates the levels of ALT and AST significantly at P=0.05 when compared to the normal control group (67.33+/-0.15 versus 59.25+/-0.25 and 135.50±0.50 versus 75.50+/-0.50) respectively. The TG levels increase significantly at P=0.05 in the diabetic group compared to the normal control group (92.01+/-0.18 versus 72.62+/-0.52) whereas the total cholesterol and HDL levels decrease in the diabetic group when compared to normal control group (34.99+/-0.40 versus 37.28+/-0.23 and 150.90+/-0.33 versus 103.29+/-0.23 respectively).  Concomitant alcohol intake lowered the levels of all parameters significantly at P=0.05.

Conclusion: Our findings showed that, both low and high chronic alcohol intake in diabetes disturbed lipid homeostasis in the prefrontal cortex, probably by lowering ALT and AST levels or via the mechanism that suppresses the enzymes of lipid syntheses in the prefrontal cortex.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of Vegetable Oil from Irvigna gabonesis and Citrullus colocynthis Dried Seeds Samples

I. O. Igwenyi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 568-573
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/5863

Aim: Extraction and analysis of the physicochemical properties of vegetable oil from Irvigna gabonesis and Citrullus colocynthis were carried out to predict possible applications.

Study Design:  It was designed to extract oil from the seeds and investigate the properties to indicate their performance and potentials in industrial applications.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, between October and December, 2012.

Methodology: Fresh seeds were collected, dried and ground to smaller particle size. Soxhlet apparatus method was used in extraction with petroleum ether (40-60ºC) while standard official methods were employed in the analysis.

Results: The result revealed that both were oil seeds yielding Irvigna gabonesis 36.43±2.60% and Citrullus colocynthis 28.03±1.20% oil. Physicochemical properties of the oil showed that the total fatty matter in both samples were very high at about 98%. The refractive index was 1.46 and 1.43 for Citrullus colocynthis and Irvigna gabonesis respectively. The acid values of 2.02 and 20.2mgKOH/g were respectively low and high in Citrullus colocynthis and Irvigna gabonesis. The free fatty acid content of 6.97% in Irvigna gabonesis was higher than 2.15% in Citrullus colocynthis. Consequently, the peroxide value of 1.20meq/g was also higher in Irvigna gabonesis than the low amount of 0.45meq/g in Colocynthus. The iodine value of 7.90±1.00 Wij’s was low in Irvigna gabonesis compared to 114.30±1.06 Wij’s in Citrullus colocynthis. The saponification values of 208.10 and 202.90mgKOH/g were high.

Conclusion: Irvigna gabonesis oil had high acid value, free fatty acids and peroxide value compared to Citrullus colocynthis. The low iodine number of the Irvigna gabonesis oil indicates high degree of saturation while the high level of iodine value in Citrullus colocynthis was indicative of high unsaturation. The saponification values showed presence of saponifiable lipids. The oils can be useful in nutrition and manufacturing industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alterations in Calcium-Binding Properties of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Proteins Following Cardiac Injury

Artashes G. Guevorgyan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 574-583
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/9708

Aims: The objective of present work is to investigate metabolic alterations associated with heart failure, particularly one of its manifestations, a sustained hypocalcemia that causes hemodynamic changes contributed to subsequent myocardial injury. Comparative study was carried out using experimental models of pancreatic necrosis (PN) and crush syndrome (CS) accompanied by cardiac damage down to myocardial infarction.

Study design: Wistar adult male rats randomly divided into groups (n=12/group). The controls are healthy intact animals. The pancreatic necrosis (PN) and crush syndrome (CS) groups were then randomly subdivided: PN group- into 3, 24 and 72 h groups concerning hemorrhage, early and late pancreatic necrosis respectively; CS group – into 2, 4, 24, and 48 h decompression stages. The rats were sacrificed to analyze spectra and calcium-binding properties of the membrane proteins isolated from the cardiomyocyte sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Development of pathological changes in the heart and pancreas were also monitored.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathological Biochemistry and Radioisotope Methods, H. Buniatyan Institute of Biochemistry of Natl. Acad. Sci (NAS), Republic of Armenia (RA). Experiments conducted between May 2011 and October 2013.

Methodology: To study pathogenesis of hypocalcemia underlying myocardial damage a translocation of radioactive 45CaCI2 into cardiomyocytes and its intracellular distribution was examined. Binding of 45Ca2+ to the SR membrane proteins was measured after proteins separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and radioactivity from the gel plates was counted by a gas-flow meter Berthold–II. Isoelectric focusing of the protein isolated from the SR of cardiomyocyte was performed.

Results: Statistically significant changes in mean radio labeled calcium incorporation into a total protein fraction of the cardiomyocyte SR from control (13682±271) were determined by3h of PN (23055±168, P<.001), 24 h of PN (22876±240, P<.01), and by 72 h (3851±271,P<.01), P vs. control. Similarly, these parameters were detected following CS by 2h decompression (24179±225, P<.01), 4-24 hours decompression (21666±124, P<.001) and 48 h decompression (2941±189, P<.001), P vs. control. We demonstrate that drop in the binding calcium level observed was partially due to impaired affinity to calcium of the cardiomyocyte SR calcium-binding proteins during development of both PN and CS despite a simultaneous manifestation of affinity to calcium of the SR 32-kDa protein.

Conclusion: In the present study we have clearly shown that both experimental acute pancreatitis and long-term compression injury may cause similar changes,а loss the calcium-binding properties of the cardiomyocyte proteins, particularly those of SR serving as a main calcium depot under physiological circumstances and appear to be involved in common cellular and molecular mechanisms of myocardial injury contributing to hypocalcemia. Simultaneously, both PN and/or CS cause similar manifestations of the new calcium-binding properties of the cardiomyocyte SR 32-kDa membrane protein, and mirrored dynamic changes in its calcium affinity suggested by Scatchard plot analysis indicating a common mechanism that would be a transient attempt of certain heart cells to compensate hypocalcemia, and thus emerge from an otherwise pathological outcome. Thus, the above mentioned changes could be used to identify patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease in different pathologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and in vitro Antibacterial Evaluation of the Ethanolic Extract of the Stem Bark of Entada africana Guill. & Perr and Sarcocephalus latifolus

J. C. Ifemeje, C. Egbuna, S. C. Udedi, H. I. Iheukwumere

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 584-592
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/11554

Aims: The phytochemical composition and the in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Entada africana Guill. & Perr. and Sarcocephalus latifolus, on Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were investigated.

Study design: The plants stem bark samples were collected from Idu, Industrial Area of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, and were characterized by Mrs. Jamilat at the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria. The bacterial isolates were obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory, Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Analysis on the plant samples were done at the Department of Biochemistry and Department of Microbiology, Anambra State University, between January 2014 and February 2014.   

Methodology: Phytochemical screening was done following standard methods. Agar well diffusion technique was used to screen the extracts for antibacterial activity. MIC and MBC for the various extracts were determined by the tube dilution technique. Ciprofloxacin, a standard antibiotic was used as control.

Results: The result of the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, terpenes, resins, sterols, anthraquinone, phenols and saponins in E. africana while S. latifolus contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinone, terpenes, phenols, resins and saponins. The in vitro antibacterial analysis revealed that the ethanolic extract of E. africana inhibited the growth of S. typhi and B. subtilis significantly while that of S. latifolus inhibited the growth of E. coli as well B. subtilis significantly with the zones of inhibition ranging from 12.00±0.02 to 0.80±0.01. The MIC and MBC for the organisms were at 5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of the stem bark of the plant samples exhibited antibacterial activity and thus could serve as a source for useful drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age-Dependent Effect of Cyclic Feeding Regimen on the Level of Serum Apolipoproteins in Young and Old Rats

M. S. Girych, N. I. Kurguzova, A. B. Malyshev

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 593-606
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/11718

Aims: the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of intermittent fasting (IF) on the content of blood serum apolipoproteins in young and old animals and to ascertain whether there exist adaptation mechanisms to this dietary regimen.

Study design: young (3-month) and old (20-month) rats were individually housed and randomly assigned to one of five groups (with 10 rats per group): (AL) - fed ad libitum; (IF1) - provided access to a limited amount of food (4g/100g and 2g/100g of food/body weight for young and old rats, respectively) every other day for 10 days; (R1) - refeeded ad libitum for 20 days after IF1; (IF2) - provided the same regimen as for IF1, but after successive IF1 and R1; (R2) - refeeded ad libitum for 10 days after IF2.

Methodology: plasma proteins were separated by one dimensional SDS-PAGE using a 7.5-15% gradient separating gel.

Results: IF1 with 30% weight loss resulted in ~28% and ~24% decrease and ~121% increase in serum apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), and apolipoprotein E (apoE) levels of young rats, respectively, and after R1 the level of these proteins was characterized by ~37%, ~66%, ~22% increase in comparison with control. IF1 and R1 in old animals were followed by ~53% increase in apoE content and ~13% decrease in the amount of apoB. IF2 was coupled with ~32% decrease in apoA-I level and ~133% increase in apoE concentration in young animals and ~39% and ~38% decrease in apoA-I and apoB-100 level in old animals, respectively. R2 produced ~48% and ~49% increase in apoA-I and apoE levels of young rats, respectively, and to ~31% increase in apoA-I content of old rats.

Conclusion: the main outcome reached is the identification of differences in the effects of the dietary regimen during reapplication on apoE and apoB-100 serum levels in old animals and on apoA-I level in the case of young animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sildenafil Determination by Using UPLC in Different Italian Viagra Tablets

Nicola Giarretta, Maria C. Mezzacapo, Antonella M. A. Di Giuseppe, Nicola Landi, Martina Lippert, Antimo Di Maro

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 607-614
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/12821

Aims: The introduction of generics drugs has brought the need for more control of their quality and purity. In Italy from June 23, 2013 the Pfizer® has no longer the patent for the Viagra’s production and other industries produce equivalent products containing Sildenafil citrate.

Study design: Thus, in this work, the chemical profiles of both Viagra Italian Pfizer® and 3 Italian commercial Sildenafil citrate tables (generic pharmaceutical manufacturers) for male erectile dysfunction were obtained by using UltraPerformanceLiquid Chromatography (UPLC).

Methodology: UPLC methodology was successfully used for the assay of Sildenafil citrate in different products in Italy which are under the cover of alternative systems of medicine.

Results: The results show that: i) the chromatographic profiles obtained from Italian Sildenafil citrate tablets are identical and not present other active pharmaceutical ingredients; ii) the commercial samples have a quantity of Sildenafil citrate comparable with the corresponding labelled amounts.

Conclusion: The UPLC method can be used for determination of Sildenafil citrate tables marketed by generic pharmaceutical manufacturers in Italy.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antimicrobial Effect of Crude Tannins Isolated from the Leaf of Annona senegalensis

Mahmoud Suleiman Jada, Wurochekke Abdullahi Usman, Ya’u Adamu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 615-623
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/11882

This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial effect of tannin isolated from the leaf of Annona senegalensis on Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. The study was carried out in the laboratory of Biochemistry department, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria, between July and October, 2013.The antimicrobial activity was carried out using agar disc diffusion method. The phytochemical screening of the leaf of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones while phenols and steroids were absent. Quantitatively, tannins were found to be 24% in the leaf of the plant. Isolated tannin exhibited antibacterial activities against all the tested bacteria; Shigella dysenteriae gave the zone of inhibition (18.6mm), Escherichia coli (13.9mm) and Salmonella typhi (10.6mm). Minimum Inhibitory concentration of the crude tannins on the test organisms ranged from 6.25mg/ml to 12.5mg/ml. These findings confirmed the basis of traditional use of the leaf of Annona senegalensis in the treatment of diseases such as dysentery and diarrhea.

Open Access Original Research Article

(1H-Pyrrolo [2,3-B] Pyridine) 7-Azaindole as Cholinesterase/ Glycation Inhibitors

Zafar Saied Saify, Nighat Sultana, Nousheen Mushtaq, Nazia Zaheer Ul Hasan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 624-643
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/9721

As a part of our program to discover novel analoges of (1H-pyrrolo [2,3-b] pyridine) 7-azaindole having useful biological activities, a variety of 7-azaindole analogs 1-9 with variable substituents on phenyl ring of phenacyl moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their AChE, BChE and antiglycation Inhibitory potential. Compounds 2-5 were found to be AChE inhibitors with IC50 1.34 µM, 11.60 µM, 0.96 µM and 0.97 µM respectively, while compounds 2-5 were also found to be BChE inhibitors with IC50 1.25 µM,  3.93 µM, IC50 9.18µM and 10.20µM respectively. Compounds 2 (IC50 = 1.25±0.019uM) and 3 (IC50 = 3.93±0.36uM), showed potent BChE inhibitory potential than standard Galantamine (IC50 = 8.51±0.02uM). Besides this, compounds 2-9 were evaluated for glycation inhibition activity. Compound 5 (IC50 values 120.6+0.2uM) showed potent antiglycation potential than standard rutin (IC50=294.50+1.5uM). The size of the substituent, electron donating or  withdrawing effect of substituents as well as the position of substituent on phenyl effects the activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Changes in Albino Rats Exposed to Rice Husk Dusk at Abakaliki Rice Mill Industrial Area

Moses E. Ogbanshi, Kingsley N. Agbafor, Benjamin S. Nwanze, Celestine O. Ogbu, Anayo J. Uraku, Stanley C. Onuoha, Fredrick U. Ali

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 644-652
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/12013

Purpose: The effect of rice husk dust inhalation on some biochemical parameters was conducted on albino rats.

Method: 100 albino rats were divided into five groups with each group containing twenty albino rats. Group A served as the control and were housed at the animal house away from rice dust while group B, C, and D were exposed to rice husk dust for two week, three weeks and four weeks respectively for dust inhalation. They were allowed access to rats feeds and deionized water ad libitium. Blood samples were collected from each group at the end of exposure by cardiac puncture. Glucose level was determined using the glucose reagent kit,  acid phosphatase concentration was performed using reagent kits, creatinine and uric acid concentration was  determined spectrophotometrically, the weight of the rats were recorded daily. 

Results: Result showed significant reduction in body weight of the exposed. The glucose level decreased significantly while the serum acid phosphatase and serum uric acid level showed a significant increase. Histological result showed various degrees of damage to the kidney of the exposed rats.

Conclusion: We therefore conclude that rice husk dust inhalation induces glucose depletion, injury to the kidney and prostatic glands in the albino rat and impairs the renal function.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Biochemical Parameters in Burkinabese Local Small Ruminants Breed Naturally Infected with Trypanosomosis

Adama Sow, Marcelin Zounongo Zabré, Mohamed Moctar Mouliom Mouiche, Justin Kouamo, Miguiri Kalandi, Aïssatou Bathily, Germain Jérôme Sawadogo, Georges Anicet Ouédraogo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 666-679
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/9962

Aims: This study aimed at establishing standard values of some biochemical parameters in Burkinabese small ruminants’ breeds and their changes due to the infection of trypanosomes. This work helps determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis in small ruminants in the study area.

Materials and Methods: A total of 317 small ruminants (173 sheep and 144 goats) were sampled for cross sectional survey of trypanosomosis from 10 villages of the agro pastoral zone of Sideradougou in the southern of Burkina Faso in July 2010. The parasitological analysis was carried out by microscopy according the Buffy Coat Technique (BCT). The biochemical parameters were analyzed using commercial kits (BIOSYSTEMS® SA).

Results: The overall parasitological prevalence was 5.99%. Infections were due to           T. congolense and T. vivax with predominance of the latter (68.42% of cases). The values of biochemical parameters found in sheep and goats were within the ranges of physiological values. However, these values varied with age and trypanosomosis infection status. In young animals for both species, cholesterol and magnesium values were significantly lower than the adult subjects. Various biochemical parameters related to nutritional status were lower in young and trypanosome infected animals than in adults and healthy animals, respectively. The values of total proteins were significantly higher in the infected goats than healthy ones (p=0.001), while the contrary was observed in sheep. The gamma globulin values were significantly increased in the trypanosome infected subjects (p<0.001 in goats).

Conclusion: Trypanosmosis infection induced changes in the values of some biochemical parameters in small ruminants. The results of this study could help clinicians to improve the diagnosis of diseases in local small ruminants’ breeds by good interpretation of biochemical analyses.