Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Phosphide-powder Residue Contaminated Cowpea on Serum Magnesium and Trace Elements in Rats

A. A. Iyanda

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 224-232
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/3129

Background: Cowpea, a major source of vegetable protein for millions in Africa is mostly preserved using synthetic chemicals e.g. phosphide. Because a large number of people who carry out grain fumigation are largely untrained, sometimes contamination of fumigated grain with spent or unspent phosphide does occur.

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine if phosphide powder residue is capable of inducing alteration in serum concentrations of Mg, Zn, Cu, Se, Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, Cr in female rats. 

Methods: Six rats were assigned to each of the three experimental groups. While the rats in the first group were fed untreated cowpea and served as control, the rats in the second and third groups were exposed to phosphide-powder residue contaminated and uncontaminated cowpea respectively.

Results: Estimation of elements in the serum of these rats revealed significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of Zn, Cu, Mn, Mg, Cr and Mo but non-significant (p>0.05) change in levels of Co, Se and Fe in the contaminated group. In the uncontaminated group, Mn and Mo were significantly decreased all other elements were not significantly changed. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that phosphide residue contamination of cowpea can induce serum Mg and trace element alteration in a mammalian species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chronic Exposure to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollution on Oxidative Stress Parameters and Histology of Liver Tissues of Native Fowl (Gallus domesticus)

Linus A. Nwaogu, G. O. C. Onyeze

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 233-242
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/7336

The effect of chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) pollution on the concentrations  of glucose, serum and liver malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl and the histology of  liver tissues of the native fowl (Gallus domesticus)  from Egbema in the Niger Delta Area (NDA) was studied. Identical fowls from an unpolluted area of Mbaise served as the control. Results showed no significant difference (P<0.05) in the mean glucose concentration obtained for fowls from both environments. The values obtained for serum and liver MDA and protein carbonyl for the test and control fowls were found to be significantly (P<0.05) different. There were elevated concentrations of MDA, protein carbonyl in the serum as well as MDA from liver homogenates of fowls from Egbema when compared to those of fowls from Mbaise. Histological changes were also observed in the liver sections of fowls from Egbema as against none in the liver sections of fowls from Mbaise. These changes were characteristically necrotic and inflammatory. Thus, the findings from this study show, in clear terms, that PHC pollution (crude oil and gas flaring) markedly affected the Egbema environment and induced changes in tissues of the native fowl whose nativity and ancestry are from there.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-Detection by Target Mixed Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

Kentaro Nagamine, Yoko Kuzuhara, Tsugunori Notomi, Junichi Takino, Takamitsu Hori, Hidetoshi Kanda

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 243-252
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/7747

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a nucleic acid amplification technology, has been characterized as having a short reaction time while generating a large amount of DNA product under isothermal conditions. Here, we found that LAMP is able to amplify more than one target simultaneously by using a mixture of human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus primers, a process we have named target mixed LAMP. Target mixed LAMP and detection can be performed in less than 1 h. In this study, we also used target mixed LAMP to successfully amplify GAPDH, gamma-actin, TATA box binding protein, and haptoglobin from pooled cDNA derived from mouse tissues. Furthermore, using eight plasmid vectors as templates, target mixed LAMP is able to amplify all targets simultaneously. These findings reveal the usefulness of LAMP for the diagnosis of infectious disease as well as for conducting gene expression analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantal Response of Periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscatus) after Exposure to Kerosene

O. S. Edori, O. A. Ekpete, E. S. Edori

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 253-259
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/8079

Periwinkles (Tympanotonus fuscatus) handpicked from the New Calabar River were acclimated to laboratory conditions in the research laboratory of the Chemistry Department of the Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt. They were subjected to concentrations (60, 90, 120, 150 and 200 ml/L) of a petroleum product, kerosene and a control to examine the effect of acute exposure on mortality of the periwinkles. The mean mortality of the periwinkles increasing with the concentration of the kerosene and the exposure time. The mean lethal concentration (96 hr LC50) of the kerosene was 111.14 ml/L, while the 96 hr LC99 was 433.94 ml/L and the probit equation at that hour, Y= -0.80 + 0.007X was significant. The mean lethal time (MLT50) at 60, 90, 120, 150 and 200 ml/L with the associated confidence limits were 90.13 (52.94–126.45), 84.06 (61.40–110.50), 79.02 (42.00–105.06), 73.27 (40.74–96.30) and 70.17 (39.84–94.20) ml/L respectively. The data obtained from the laboratory is an indication that kerosene is toxic to periwinkles which can be extrapolated to field conditions in the event of a spill. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Apo-B and TG/HDL-C Ratio as Indicators of Insulin Resistance in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

Parineeta Samant, Padma Chavan, Sandeep Rai, Ujwala Maheshwari

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 260-268
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/7590

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to  assess Apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) and Triglyceride/High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio as indicators of insulin resistance (IR) with Homeostasis Model of  assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR)) in metabolic syndrome patients .

Study Design: Observational and prospective.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, MGM Medical College, Navi-Mumbai from March 2012 to June 2013.

Methodology: Total 110 normal subjects and patients were recruited in the study after obtaining informed written consent. They were divided in to two groups. Group I was healthy controls (n=50) and Group II included subjects with MS (n=60) as per NCEP ATP III criteria. Anthropometric measurements & biochemical analysis was performed in all subjects. IR was defined by HOMA IR. Simple & multiple regression analysis were used to obtain relationship between IR (HOMA IR) using TG/HDL-C (model -1) and Apo-B (Model-2) as independent variables.

Result: There were statistically significant differences in anthropometric, glycemic and lipid parameters between the control and study group (p<0.0001).The regression model between HOMA IR and TG/HDL-C ratio showed a positive correlation, (r=0.29, p < 0.05). HOMA IR & Apo-B also showed a significantly positive correlation (0. 41, p < 0.001). But combined multivariate analysis indicated that Apo-B is a better predictor of IR compared to TG/HDL-C ratio.

Conclusion: We concluded in our study that Apo-B may be a better predictor of IR than TG/HDL-C and hence could be adopted in routine laboratory practice as a lipid marker for prediction of insulin resistance (IR) in metabolic syndrome patients at an early stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chronic Alcoholism-mediated Metabolic Violations in Albino Rats Brain

Larysa B. Bondarenko, Ganna M. Shayakhmetova, Valentina M. Kovalenko, Olga I. Kharchenko, Larisa I. Bohun, Yuliya O. Omelchenko

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 269-283
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/8809

Aims: Despite of intensive investigation of alcoholism consequences for nervous system, the full complex of such metabolic alterations in brain remains unknown. The aim of present work was to study the influence of chronic ethanol consumption on rats’ brain contents of free amino acids, rates of CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 expression, NO-synthase activities and pro- and antioxidant system parameters.

Study Design: Wistar albino male rats (body weight (bw), 160–200 g) were divided into two groups: I – alcohol, II – normal animals.

Methodology: The content of amino acids in rat brain was determined using an amino acid analyzer. Brain CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 were evaluated with RT-PCR method, pro- and antioxidant system parameters – by standard methods.

Results: Changes of brain free amino acids contents with alcoholism were demonstrated for 14 amino acids and their total sum. Chronic alcohol consumption caused 1.77 times increasing of CYP2Е1 mRNA expression in rat’s brain, 2.34 times – of CYP3A2 mRNA expression, 2.8 times - of cNOS activity, 42% - of TBARS formation rates. Activities of SOD and catalase were decreased 19% and 25% respectively.

Conclusions: Thus investigation of alcoholism effects on brain levels of free amino acids permits to obtain complex estimation of this pathology influence on metabolic processes in brain, especially on amino acids, proteins, ATP and NADPH metabolisms. Alterations on the level of genome in our experiments were accompanied with complex alterations on the level of protein, amino acid and nitrous metabolisms.

Open Access Review Article

The Importance of the RAS Interacting with the HGF/C-Met Receptor System in Hypertensive Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

John W. Wright, Joseph W. Harding

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 204-223
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/6569

The classic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is described as a circulating hormone system with primary roles in the regulation of blood pressure, body water balance and thirst and control over vasopressin and aldosterone release. Recently local tissue RASs have been identified with regulatory physiological functions and also with pathophysiological processes including fibrosis, inflammation and dysfunctional cell proliferation. There is a strong correlation between organs vulnerable to diabetic–induced hyperglycemic injury (eg. kidney and retina) and the over activation of local RASs.  Increased angiotensin II concentrations in these tissues promotes hypertension and end-organ damage in at least two ways: 1) By activating AT1 receptor proteins thus inducing changes in local blood flow and tissue hydration and 2) Exacerbating hyperglycemic-induced oxidative stress, elevated polyol and hexosamine pathway variability and facilitating glycation end-products. Thus, inhibition of the RAS has become an important treatment approach to control diabetic related hypertension, nephropathy and to a lesser extent retinopathy. The present review emphasizes the recently established importance of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met receptor system interacting with the RAS in Type 2 diabetes and their likely contribution to end-organ damage. A hypothesis is offered concerning how the pancreatic RAS may affect dimerization of HGF and in turn activation of the c-Met receptor to promote β cell proliferation and insulin synthesis. We conclude with details concerning the development of an AngIV-based small molecule HGF mimetic designed to act as an insulinotropic factor.