Open Access Original Research Article

Glucide Factors of the Inflorescence Sap of Four Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Cultivars from Côte D’ivoire

Konan N’guessan Ysidor, Assa Rebecca Rachel, Konan Konan Jean-Louis, Okoma Djeya Muriel, Alexia Prades, Allou Kouassi, Biego Godi Henri Marius

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 116-127
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/7148

Aim: To assess physicochemical characters related to the glucide contents of the sap provided by four coconut cultivars.  

Study Design: Thirty-six coconut saps from thirty-six healthy coconut trees inflorescences, replicated two times. Trees were randomly selected; cultivars were the most widespread coconut types in Côte d’Ivoire. The whole coconut saps consists of three batches of three samples per cultivar.

Place and Duration of the Study: Station Marc Delorme for the coconut Research at Port Bouet, National Centre of Agronomic Research (CNRA) of Côte d’Ivoire during 2012 and 2013.

Methodology: Inflorescences saps from four coconut cultivars namely Malayan Yellow Dwarf, West African Tall, and PB 121+ and PB 113+ hybrids were investigated according to their carbohydrate content. Nine coconut trees were randomly selected per cultivar on experimental fields and their unopened inflorescences (spathes) of rank 8 have undergone the production of sap. The sap was harvested twice a day and samples from both harvestings were stored at -20ºC. Even quantities of the daily samples were mixed and a slight volume was taken from this mixture for analysis. Five traits (pH, contents of total soluble solids, dry matter, total soluble sugars and reducing sugars) related to glucidic richness of the coconut sap were assessed. Then the main carbohydrates components (sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannose and glycerol) were elucidated using a high performance ionic chromatography and led to the evaluation of the sweet index.

Results: The effect of coconut cultivars on the pH and contents of total soluble solids, dry matter, total soluble sugars, sucrose, mannose, glycerol and sweet index was significant at P = .05. The sap of MYD recorded highest means of pH (7.32). This type of sap contained also highest contents of total soluble solids (16.31%), dry matter (16.47g/100ml), total soluble sugars (16.08g/100ml), mannose (0.019g/100ml) and glycerol (0.094g/100) contents and provided the greatest sweet index (16.00). Sucrose was the main carbohydrate of coconut sap. The MYD obtained higher sucrose content (12.24g/100ml) than the WAT (9.40g/100ml). Hundred (100ml) of saps from PB 121+ and PB 113+ provided respectively 10.31g and 10.38g of sucrose, which intermediate both means above. The contents of reducing sugars, glucose and fructose were respectively between 2.41 and 3.73g/100ml; 1.63 and 1.84g/100ml and from 1.24 to 1.52g/100ml, but didn’t differentiate saps originating with MYD, WAT, PB 121+ and PB 113+ cultivars. Reducing sugars were significantly composed of glucose (r = 0.83) and fructose (r = 0.91).

Conclusion: The richness in glucides of coconut inflorescence sap is related to the contents of total soluble solids, dry matter and the whole carbohydrates. Thanks to their higher sucrose, glucose and fructose contents, the saps of the MYD, PB121+ and PB113+ cultivars could be suitable for the production of syrup, sugar and alcohol in order to improve benefits derived from the coconut.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Values in Sheep Fed a Diet Containing Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Seed Oil

M. I. Abd El-Halim, Nabiela M. El-Bagir, M. K. Sabahelkhier

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 128-140
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/7382

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in hematological values after feeding diet mixed with oil pressed from seeds of Nigella sativa in sheep. The results indicated that there was no effect on the total Red Blood Cells (RBCs) count due to treatment when compared to the control group, but the treated group showed significant (P≤0.05) increase in the total RBCs count after six weeks compared to the transient decrease at week two. Hemoglobin concentration showed similar pattern to what was observed in the RBC count in both the treated and control groups. Packed Cells Volume (PCV), Mean Carpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Carpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Carpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) weren’t affected by feeding N. sativa oil to sheep throughout the experiment. However, there were significantly (p≤ 0.05) lower values in total mean of White Blood Cells (WBCs), lymphocytes and granulocytes of the treated group compared to the control. The levels of White Blood Cells in the treated group were not time dependent. The Monocytes total mean was similar in both groups but the cells were significantly (P≤0.05) lower in the N. sativa oil treated group compared to the control at week four. The hematological changes could be due to N. sativa volatile oils incorporated to in the sheep diet. Conclusion: The results revealed that RBCs, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC for treated group are similar to control group but there are significantly increasing in RBCs and HB in 6th week. While WBCs, lymphocytes and granulocytes for treated group are significantly lower than the control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sublethal Concentration of Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Physicochemical Properties, Catalase and Dehydrogenase Activities

Linus A. Nwaogu, Cosmas O. Ujowundu, Callistus I. Iheme, Tobias N. I. Ezejiofor, Donatus C. Belonwu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 141-149
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/6341

The effect of sublethal contaminations (100 mg/dm3) of heavy metals such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme and physicochemical properties was investigated after one hundred and twenty days. Soil sample without heavy metal contamination served as the control. Results indicate that Hg, Pb and Cd at 100 mg/dm3 concentration caused a significant (P<0.05) change in the soil pH and electrical conductivity relative to the control. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in these

 soil physicochemical properties: moisture, phosphate, sulphate, chloride, calcium carbonate, total nitrogen and organic carbon when compared to the control. There were  significant (P<0.05) decrease in soil dehydrogenase and catalase activities in all the metal-contaminated soil samples when compared to the control, indicating that these heavy metals  increased soil acidity and electrical conductivity at this concentration and period of exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Antioxidant Capacity: Correlation with Other Antioxidants and Clinical Utility of Their Levels in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Vivek Ambade, Alka Sontakke, Dashrath Basannar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 150-162
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/7264

Aims: Oxidative stress is one of the major pathophysiologic hallmarks in the development of COPD and lung is protected against this by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.  Total antioxidant activity (TAC), may give more relevant biological information about the individual's overall antioxidant status compared to individual components. This study aims to evaluate correlation between TAC and other antioxidants bilirubin, albumin, urate and ceruloplasmin (CP) and explore the clinical utility of their levels in diagnosis of COPD.

Study Design: Comparison study.

Place and Duration of Study: Cardio Thoracic Centre, Pune and Department of Biochemistry, AFMC, Pune during Dec 2010 to Aug 2012.

Methodology: Study comprised of 86 normals as controls group and 86 confirmed COPD patients as COPD group. CP was estimated by patented kinetic method of Somani and Ambade, while all other analytes were estimated by using commercially available kits.

Results: CP was significantly higher in COPD patients (1392.8±281.6 IU/L) as compared to controls (1006.2±236.1 IU/L) while levels of albumin, urate and TAC were significantly lower in COPD patients. The levels in COPD and controls are albumin: 3.8±0.5 and 4.3± 0.4g/dL; urate: 4.4±1.3 and 5±1.3 mg/dL; TAC: 27.7±6.9 and 36±8.2 mmolTE/L respectively. No appreciable correlation was noticed between any individual antioxidant and TAC.

Conclusion: CP and TAC showed statistically significant differences between controls and COPD patients and may have clinical utility in the management of COPD.  However, the estimation of TAC is to be done with extreme care.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of in vitro Antioxidant Properties of Cajanus cajan Seed and Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts

Ilesanmi Funmilayo Florence, Akinloye Oluseyi Adeboye, Ilesanmi Olayinka Stephen

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 163-172
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/6460

Aims: This study was carried out to compare the antioxidant potentials of hydro-methanolic extracts of seed of Cajanus cajan and the leaf of Moringa oleifera. These plants have been associated with alleviating oxidative stress related conditions.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and Covenant University Sango, Ogun state Nigeria, between August 2012 and September, 2012.

Methodology: Different analyses for determining antioxidant potentials were used to compare the antioxidant properties of the plants: hydroxyl radical scavenging test, ascorbic acid value, total polyphenols, total flavonoids content, ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulphonic acid (ABTS) scavenging test, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (lipoprotein).

Results: The total phenolic contents of Cajanus cajan and Moringa oleifera were 83.0 ±0.02 and 541.0 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight (mg/GAE/g DW) respectively. Also, the results obtained for total flavonoids in Cajanus cajan and Moringa oleifera were 46.0±.01 and 645.0±0.10 mg pyrocatechol equivalent per gram dry weight respectively.  It was observed that Moringa oleifera leaf extract has significantly higher antioxidant potentials than the Cajanus cajan seeds extract (p<.05)

Conclusion: Data suggest that Moringa oleifera leaf extract had higher antioxdant potentials in comparison with that of Cajanus cajan seeds. Further research in determining the benefits of Moringa Oleifera leaf and Cajanus cajan seed extracts due to their antioxidant potential in animal model is therefore recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Orlistat and Herbal Mixture Extract on Renal Function and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in a Rat Model of High Fat Diet

Kamal A. Amin, Sana'a R. Galaly, Wala'a G. Hozayen, Shima'a M. Ramadan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 173-192
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/6262

Aims: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of herbal mixture extracts of pumpkin seed oil, peanuts shell and Orlistat on renal function and oxidative stress biomarkers in male albino rats administrated high fat diet (HFD).

Study Design: Fifty male rats were divided into four groups: 1st a normal diet, 2nd HFD, 3rd HFD with Orlistat and 4th HFD with herbal mixture.

Place and Duration of Study: Biochemistry-Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University for two years.

Methodology: A group of rats were fed with a standard control diet (1st control group) and another group of rats were fed with a diet containing 35% fat (2nd HFD) for 16 weeks. Then, this group of HFD was divided into 3 groups for the following 6 weeks: 1st group hadHFD only, 2nd group had HFD plus 2 mg/kg bw/day Orlistat and 3rd group had HFD plus 5 mg/kg bw/day pumpkins and 2 mg/kg bw/day nutshell extract. Blood and renal tissues were collected for biochemical assays.

Results: HFD group showed a very high significant increase (***P<0.001)in feed intake from low (216.9+/-12.25) to high (327.5 +/-22.00), body weight and body mass index. HFD affect the kidney by increasing serum uric acid (**P<0.01)(1.964+/-0.251) to (3.106+/- 0.161), urea, creatinine, (***P<0.001) for low density lipoproteins and total cholesterol (16.71+/-2.27 to 55.78+/-4.40 and 70.30+/-2.75 to118.10+/-6.35) respectively, triacylglycerol (**P<0.01) (54.60+/-6.42 to 80.00+/-0.65) and malondialdehyde (***P<0.001) (35.48 +/- 3.52 to 63.03 +/-1.48). These changes improved by the treatments with Orlistat and herbal mixture that decreased the oxidative stress biomarkers.

Conclusion: Rats that fed with HFD showed hypertriglyceridemia, increased oxidative stress and renal alteration. Moreover, suggesting association between lipid peroxidation, obesity and nephropathy, while treatment with Orlistat and herbal mixture ameliorated the harmful effects of the HFD and reduce feed intake.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effects of Crude Extracts of Tomato and Onion in Rats Exposed to Locally Processed Beef

C. O. Ujowundu, H. N. Okoye, R. N. Nwaoguikpe, D. C. Belonwu, K. O. Igwe, F. N. Ujowundu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 193-203
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2014/7353

This study was carried out to examine the hepatoprotective effect of ethylacetate extract of tomatoes and methanol extract of onions on the biochemical changes induced by feed formulated with 15% roasted beef and 85% rats pellets. Doses of 500 mg/kg body weight of both extracts were administered orally. The hepatic activities of aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine amino-transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were examined, also concentrations of total protein, albumin and globulin were monitored in the animals. The effects of feeding and treatment on oxidative stress parameters (CAT, SOD, GPx, Glutathione and MDA) were determined. The changes observed were discussed.