Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic Effect of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Moringa oleifera in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

T. A. Oyedepo, S. O. Babarinde, T. A. Ajayeoba

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 162-170
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2013/3639

Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) on plasma glucose level, total cholesterol level, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in male albino rats.

Study Design: Experimental method was adopted.

Place and Duration of Study: Adeleke University, Ede, Nigeria and University of Ibadan, Nigeria between September 2012 and January, 2013.

Methodology: Twenty-four male albino rats of the Wistar strain weighing between 160 and 200 g were used for this study. These were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 8 animals per group as normal control, diabetic control and diabetic treated with extract of Moringa oleifera. Diabetes was induced by 100 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate. The control and the diabetic groups received distilled water while the diabetic treated group was administered 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, plasma glucose level, cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) were determined in all the experimental animals after 12 hours fast.

Results: The result showed significant increases (P<0.05) in plasma cholesterol, TG and LDL level of the diabetic control group when compared with the normal control group while there were no significant differences in the Moringa oleifera -treated diabetic group and the normal control group. The HDL however was not different in all the three groups.

Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera may reduce the plasma lipid imbalances associated with diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ocimum Gratissimum Alleviates Derangements in Serum and Biliary Bilirubin, Cholesterol and Electrolytes in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

Okon Uduak Akpan, Ikpi Daniel Ewa, Ben Ezekiel Etim

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 171-189
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2013/4258

Aims: The effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) on biliary and serum bilirubin, cholesterol and electrolytes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Albino Wistar rats was studied.

Methodology: Type 1 Diabetes mellitus was induced in the test groups (DM and DMT) by a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p.). The phytoconstituents and median lethal dose of the plant extract was determined before administration. The extract was administered per oral to the DMT group at a dose of 1500 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days. All the groups were fed normal rat chow and allowed water ad libitum. Biliary secretion was collected and assayed, biliary bilirubin was measured by colorimetric method, Sodium and potassium was determined using a flame photometer and Chloride was determined by end point calorimetric titration.

Results: The result showed that serum cholesterol was significantly (p=.001) higher in the DM group compared to the control while the DMT group was significantly (p=.001) lower than the DM group. Serum conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin were significantly (p=.05, p=0.01) higher in the DM group compared to the control and DMT groups, with the DMT group significantly (p=.01) lower than the DM group. The serum electrolytes showed no significant change in K+. However, Cl- and HCO3- were significantly (p=.001) reduced in the test group compared to the control. Na+ was significantly raised in the DMT group compared to the control.

Conclusion: These results are indicative of the efficacy of Ocimum gratissimum to obviate the derangement in biliary and serum bilirubin, cholesterol and electrolytes caused by the STZ-induced type 1 DM in albino wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti – Atherogenic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Buccholzia coriacea Seeds on Hypercholesterolemic Rats

T. O. Omolekan, C. O. O. Olaiya

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 190-199
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2013/2858

Aims: To scientific determine the phytochemical constituents of ethanol extract of B. coriacea (EEBC) powdered seeds and its effects on the serum lipid profile, serum atherogenic index, and lipid peroxidation in the serum of hypercholesterolemic rats.

Study Design: Twenty male albino rats were used for the experiment. They were divided into four groups, 5 rats in each. The administration is as follows: GROUP 1 (Normal control): 0.3ml of corn oil only, GROUP 2 (experimental control): 40 mg/kg body weight of cholesterol only, GROUP 3 (standard drug treatment): 40 mg/kg body weight of cholesterol and 260mg/kg body weight of cholestyramine, GROUP 4 (extract treatment): 40 mg/kg body weight of cholesterol and 250mg/kg body weight of EEBC.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria for eight weeks.

Methodology: At the end the 6 weeks of administration, the animals were kept fasting overnight. They were then made unconscious by cervical dislocation and dissected. The blood was then collected into clean vials. The Lipid profile, malondialdehdye levels were measured in the serum of the rats in the four groups while the atherogenic index was calculated. The qualitative phytochemical screening of EEBC seeds powder was performed. Data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by post hoc Duncan multiple range comparison tests.

Results: EEBC powdered seeds contains tannins, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids and alkaloids. The level of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL – cholesterol, atherogenic index significantly decreased (P=.05) by 29.5%, 41.5%, 39.2%, 77.4% respectively in the extract – treated group compared with experimental group. Whereas the experimental group showed a significant (P=.05) increase compared with normal control. There was a significant (P=.05) increase of 67.9% in the serum HDL - cholesterol of the extract – treated group compared with the experimental group. Whereas the experimental group showed a significant (P=.05) decrease in comparison with the normal control. A significant (P=.05) decrease of 36% in the amount of serum malondialdehyde was produced in the extract – treated groups compared with the experimental control which showed a significant (P=.05) increase compared with the normal control.

Conclusion: EEBC seed powder has potent anti- atherogenic properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Variations of the Ration of Sorghum Malt with Sweet Potato Flour on the Quality of Glucose Syrup Produced Through Enzyme Conversion Activity of Sorghum Malt

O. O. John-Dewole, O. O. Popoola

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 200-205
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2013/2247

The chemical parameters of glucose syrup produced from five different weight ratios of sorghum malt and sweet potato flour using sorghum malt as a source of enzyme hydrolysis were studied. There were variations in the chemical parameters of the samples as a result of the different weight ratios of sorghum malt and sweet potato flour used. The moisture content ranged from 5.33 – 8.26%, ash content 0.010 – 0.040%, the dextrose equivalent 37.00 – 39.33%, the acid content 0.02 – 0.09%, the pH 5.4 – 5.8, and the brix value 82 – 86%. Significant differences were observed between the parameters (except the brix value) of the samples. All the samples had chemical parameters (except acid content of GA and dextrose equivalent of GB and GD) whose values were within the glucose syrup specifications set by the Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON) as 18% maximum for moisture content, 0.3% maximum for acid content, (38 – 42)% for dextrose equivalent, (4.0 – 6.0) for pH and 82% minimum for brix value. Only the sample (Glucose Syrup E) with the lowest ratio (1:4) of sorghum malt to sweet potato flour had the most desirous qualities having the lowest moisture content, lowest ash content, lowest acid content, good brix value and good pH.  

Open Access Original Research Article

DNA Polymerases: An Insight into Their Active Sites and Catalytic Mechanism

P. Palanivelu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 206-247
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2013/3777

Aim: To analyze the active sites of various prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases and propose a plausible mechanism of action for the polymerases with the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I as a model system.

Study Design: Bioinformatics, Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic data were analyzed.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625 021, India. From 2007 to 2012.

Methodology: The advanced version of T-COFFEE was used to analyze both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerase sequences. Along with this bioinformatics data, X-ray crystallographic and biochemical data were used to confirm the possible amino acids in the active sites of different types of polymerases from various sources.

Results: Multiple sequence analyses of various polymerases from different sources show only a few highly conserved motifs among these enzymes except eukaryotic epsilon polymerases where a large number of highly conserved sequences are found. Possible catalytic/active site regions in all these polymerases show a highly conserved catalytic amino acid K/R and the YG/A pair. A distance conservation is also observed between the active sites. Furthermore, two highly conserved Ds  and DXD motifs are also observed.

Conclusion: The highly conserved amino acid K/R acts as the proton abstractor in catalysis and the YG/A pair acts as a “steric gate” in selection of only dNTPS for polymerization reactions. The two highly conserved Ds act as the “charge shielder” of dNTPs and orient the alpha phosphate of incoming dNTPs to the 3’-OH end of the growing primer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-diabetic and Liver Enzymes Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Moringa oleifera and Bridelia ferruginea Leaves in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

P. M. Aja, E. J. Nwafor, A. U. Ibiam, O. U. Orji, N. Ezeani, B. U. Nwali

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 248-258
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2013/3859

Aims: To evaluate anti-diabetic and liver enzymes activities of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera and Bridelia ferruginea leaves in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats.

Study design: Diabetes was induced in three groups of rats, one group was not treated while two groups were treated orally with M. oleifera and B. ferruginea extracts at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of rats twice for 1 week respectively. One group was not induced and received distilled water only. The anti-diabetic and liver enzymes activities were determined from blood glucose and transaminases activities of the rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria, September, 2012.

Methodology: Twenty-four albino rats were grouped into A, B, C and D group. Group C and D were further subdivided into C1, C2, C3, D1, D2 and D3, respectively. Diabetes was induced in all the groups, except group A (positive control). Group B (negative control) was not treated while group C and D were treated with aqueous extracts of M. oleifera and B. ferruginea leaves, which were administered orally to the animals twice daily for 1 week at varying concentrations of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weights. The glucose and liver enzymes levels were determined using glucometeric and spectrophotometric methods.

Results: The results revealed that there was significant reductions (P < 0.05) in glucose level in rats treated with aqueous extract of B. ferruginea than M. oleifera treated rats. There were no significant reduction (P> 0.05) in Alkaline phosphatase level between the controls and the treated groups, except at 200 mg/kg dose in which Alkaline phosphatase level was high in rats treated with M. oleifera extract. There were significant reduction (P< 0.05) in Alanine aminotransaminase level in rats treated with both M. oleifera and B. ferruginea in comparison to the negative control while there was significant increase (P < 0.05) when compared to the positive control except at 200 mg/kg dose where there was decrease in Alanine aminotransaminase level in both plant extracts. Also there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in AST level in rats treated with M. oleifera when compared to controls while there was significant increase (P< 0.05) in Aspartate aminotransaminase level in rats treated with B. ferruginea except at 200 mg/kg where there was decrease when compared to the controls.

Conclusion: These suggest that both extracts can be used in ethno-medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Neridronic Acid IV and IM in Improving BMD and Reducing Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

A. Lurati, D. Bompane, K. Re, M. G. Marrazza, M. Scarpellini

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 259-265
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2013/v3i32664

Osteoporosis is a major health concern that is associated with an increased risk of first and subsequent bone fractures. Untreated osteoporosis results in considerable morbidity. Currently, bisphosphonates are the mainstay of treatment for osteoporosis and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) neridronate (NE) on femoral/lumbar bone mineral density (BMD). Data were collected on age, weight, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, height loss, history of falls, total hip and lumbar BMD, and creatinine clearance. Inclusion criteria were a lumbar or femoral BMD T score < 2.5; Exclusion criteria were secondary osteoporosis, previous osteoporotic fracture, prior bisphosphonates or osteoporosis medications other than calcium or colecalciferol, presence of any concomitant skeletal metabolic disease.

Methods: 164 patients (mean age 64±2.7 years) with postmenopausal osteoporosis confirmed with a lumbar and femoral DEXA BMD scan received NE IV 100mg every 8 weeks for 18 months and subsequently IM NE 25 mg every 4 weeks for 18 months. All patients had gastric or esophageal conditions that contraindicated treatment with oral bisphosphonates (BPs). All subjects received daily calcium 1 g and vitamin D 800 UI. Lumbar and femoral DEXA BMD scans were performed at baseline, 18 months and 36 months.  Furthermore, the fracture risk FRAX was calculated at baseline and after 18 and 36 months of therapy.

Results: After 18 months of IV therapy mean ±SD lumbar T-score was significantly increased (baseline -2.8±1.2 vs 18 months -2.6±1.4; p<0.01). Mean ±SD femoral neck T- score was also improved (baseline -2.15±1.1 vs 18 months -2.01±0.5; p<0.05). After an additional 18 months of IM NE the mean ±SD T-score values were lumbar -1.89±0.8 and femur -1.49±1.48; p< 0.01 vs. baseline. FRAX mean value was 14% for major osteoporotic fractures and 5.8% for hip fracture at baseline. After 18 months of therapy  FRAX was 12% and 5%, respectively and finally at the end of the study was  10% for major osteoporotic fractures and 3.7% for hip fracture in the group treated continuously with NE IV and 9.8% and 3.9% in group  treated with NE IM (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The results of this study confirm the role of NE in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and indicate the potential usefulness of intramuscular administration in the treatment of these patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Anti-Diabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Morinda lucida and Saccharum officinarum Leaves in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Oyesola Ojewunmi, Tope Oshodi, Omobolanle Ogundele, Chijioke Micah, Sunday Adenekan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 266-277
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2013/4210

Aim: To investigate the antidiabetic, anti-hyperlipidaemic, and antioxidant potentials of the combined aqueous extracts of Morinda lucida and Saccharum officinarum leaves.

Study Design: Thirty alloxan-induced diabetic male rats were randomly and evenly distributed into six groups, and  were subsequently exposed to the following treatments for twenty-one days: Group I (Control): Normal saline; Group II: Untreated Diabetic control; Group III: Diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (600mg/Kg. b.w); Group IV: Diabetic rats treated with Morinda lucida (400mg/Kg b.w); Group V: Diabetic rats treated with Saccharum officinarum (400mg/Kg b.w); Group VI: Diabetic group treated with Morinda lucida and Saccharum officinarum (400mg/Kg b.w, 1:1).

Place and Duration of Study: This work was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria between November 2012 and February 2013.

Methodology: Blood samples were collected for the determination of fasting blood sugar and biochemical profiles following the last oral treatment and an overnight fast. The pancreas, liver, and kidney tissues of each animal were excised and subjected to tests for oxidative stress markers.

Result: There was a significant reduction (P< 0.001) in the fasting blood glucose of diabetic rats treated with the plant extracts, both separately and the extract mixture when compared to the untreated diabetic group. Diabetic treated groups showed a significant decrease (P<0.001) in the levels of Total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol when compared to the diabetic untreated group. Levels of reduced glutathione and Catalase activities in the pancreas and liver of diabetic treated groups were significantly increased compared to the untreated diabetic control (P<0.001).  Activities of Super-Oxide Dismutase were significantly increased (P<0.001) in the pancreas and kidney of rats treated with the plant extracts while Malondialdehyde showed a significant reduction in the treated groups of all organs evaluated (P<0.001).

Conclusion: The extracts showed anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and antioxidant potentials.

Open Access Review Article

Chemistry of Phorbol Ester Toxicity in Jatropha curcas Seed – a Review

A. Wakandigara, L. R. M. Nhamo, J. Kugara

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 146-161
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2013/2956

The toxicity of Jatropha curcas seeds emanates mainly from phorbol esters. It is known that the seeds are a valuable source of oil, which can be used to produce biodiesel. The cake generated as a by-product, after oil pressing is a protein-rich potential stock for animal feed. Researchers, the world over, have studied these phorbol esters and investigated ways of improving the applications of the seed meal. This review paper outlines the previous research done on the Jatropha curcas plant, the toxicity of phorbol esters and the efforts made to detoxify the seed. It also highlights the knowledge gaps concerning the chemistry of phorbol ester toxicity and the probable areas of future research.