Open Access Original Research Article

Chloroquine and Vitamin Combination Effects on P. berghei Induced Oxidative Stress

H. O. T. Iyawe, A. O. Onigbinde

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 120-125
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2012/956

Aim: The effect of chloroquine, folic and ascorbic acid on malaria parasite induced oxidative stress was the focus of this study. The study relevance derives from the need to understand the specific roles of these individual organic acids used in combination with chloroquine.

Study Design: The design involves five groups of control (non-parasitized-nontreated), parasitized nontreated (PnT), parasitized chloroquine and ascorbic acid treated (Pcq+asT), parasitized chloroquine and folic acid treated (Pcq+faT) and parasitized chloroquine, ascorbic and folic acid treated (Pcq+asT+faT).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Ambrose Alli University (Faculty of Natural Sciences). This study is part of a research that lasted three years.

Materials and Methods: Treatment regime was for three days after parasitemia in mice was established with Gemsa stain. All biochemical and haematological parameters assayed for in this project were conducted using standard procedures.

Result: Chloroquine and vitamin treatments significantly (P=.05) reduced erythrocyte fragility (EF), total bilirubin and increased packed cell volume (PCV) when compared with PnT parameters of mice. Treatments significantly (P=.05) increased serum albumin compared with control and had no effect on the serum albumin levels of PnT mice. Treatment with cq+asa and cq+as+fa resulted in significant (P=.05) oxidative stress in mice compared to control but reduced (P=.05) oxidative stress in comparison with PnT mice. Exceptionally, chloroquine and folic acid treatment did not show any significant change in oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in mice when compared with control.

Conclusion: The results suggest chloroquine and folic acid treatment to be more effective than ascorbic acid or other combination treatment employed in this study in the management of malaria induced oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Effects of Drinking Terminalia Iittoralis Seem. Decoction

C. O. Ibegbulem

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 126-136
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2012/1867

Aims: The nutritional effects of drinking Terminalia littoralis Seem. decoction, used in ethno-medicine as prophylactic agent against sickle cell crisis, was studied.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, between January 2012 and March 2012.

Methodology: Preparation and analysis of the decoction for pH, concentration, minerals, moisture, crude protein, crude ash, crude fat, total carbohydrates, energy and amino acid contents. The protein quality and the presence of some phytochemicals and vitamins were also evaluated. A feeding study using the decoction as the only source of fluid for albino rats of the Wistar strain for 35 days and the blood analysed for haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and number of white blood cells.

Results: The decoction had a pH of 5.95±0.01 and a concentration of 1.7 g/ 100 ml. Preliminary screening showed that it contained tannins, saponins, flavonoids, thiocyanates, cardiotonic glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, vitamin C, β-carotene, free amino acids, monosaccharides and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Its mineral contents (mg/ L) were K+ (12.800±0.004), Na+ (21.000±0.001), Ca2+ (33.600±0.002), Mg2+ (10.400±0.002), Zn2+ (21.200±0.004) and Fe2+ (15.200±0.002). It had a protein level of 4.55±0.42 % with 50.19±0.08 % essential amino acid content. It had a high protein quality; with Computed-Protein Efficiency Ratio-1 (C-PER-1) of 1.83; C-PER-2 of 1.83 and C-PER-3 of 0.70. Met and Cys were the limiting amino acids.

Conclusion: Drinking the decoction significantly (p<0.05) increased growth rate, nutrient adequacy, digestion and assimilation of feeds. It did not however affect (p>0.05) the weights of the organs and the haematological parameters studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Classification of Some Wild Yam Species Tubers of Ivory Coast Forest Zone

Sahoré Drogba Alexis, Amani N’guessan Georges

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 137-151
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2012/2017

The tubers of some wild yam species (eight) found in the Ivory Coast forest were collected and their classification according to their nutrients and antinutritional factors was made by principal component analysis (PCA). The principal component analysis (PCA) of individuals, constituted by the yam species, according to nutrients considered as the variables, showed two principal axes of correlation F1 and F2. The percentages of variables dispersion around the principal axes F1 and F2 were equal to 72.86% and 20.24% respectively. The individuals projected on the principal axes F1 and F2 grouped into four classes around the axes. Around the axis F1 (72.26%): The class gathering the tubers of wild yam species D. minutiflora; D. will hirtiflora and D. bulbifera bulbil which contained more Moisture and the class gathering the tubers of wild yam species D. burkilliana; D. bulbifera tuber; D. dumetorum; D. praehensilis and D. mangenotiana which had the highest Energy Value. Around the axis F2 (20.24%): The class gathering the tubers of wild yam species D. burkilliana; D. bulbifera tuber; D. dumetorum and D. praehensilis which contained more Soluble carbohydrates and the class gathering the tubers of wild yam species D. minutiflora; D. hirtiflora; D. bulbifera bulbil and D. mangenotiana which contained more ash. The principal component analysis (PCA) of individuals, constituted by wild yam species, according to their Antinutritional factors considered as the variables, showed two principal axes of correlation F1 and F2. The percentages of variables dispersion around the principal axes F1 and F2 were equal to 35.88% and 31.99%) respectively. The individuals projected on the principal axes F1 and F2 grouped into 3 classes around axes: Around the axis F1 (35.88%): The class gathering the tubers of wild yam species D. mangenotiana; D. dumetorum; D. burkilliana; D. bulbifera bulbil; D. togoensis; D. bulbifera tuber and D. praehensilis which contained more, Tannins, Alkaloids and Hydrocyanic acid. Around the F2 axis (31.99%): The class gathering the tubers of wild yam species D. togoensis; D. dumetorum; D. minutiflora; D. mangenotiana; D. praehensilis and D. bulbifera bulbil which contained more Oxalic Acid and the class gathering the tubers of wild yam species D. togoensis; D. hirtiflora; D. minutiflora and D. dumetorum and which contained more Sapogenins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Physical and Physicochemical Characteristics of Malpighia emarginata DC from the State of Ceará

Sandra M.L. Santos, Anderson M. De Vasconcelos, Valéria S. Oliveira, Edmar Clemente, José M.C. Costa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 152-163
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2012/1945

The potential of acerola as a natural source of vitamin C is great, as well as its capacity for industrial use. However, this and other characteristics of the fruit can be influenced by factors such as soil type, type of reproduction and pluviometrical index. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the physical and physicochemical characteristics of acerola fruit from six regions in Ceará, harvested during the rainy season, and to compare the results obtained in Caucaia orchard, in the same period, to those obtained in the dry season. Mass, diameters, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), maturation index (MI), pH and vitamin C were evaluated. The data were evaluated in an experimental design totally randomized. All the fruits showed higher weight than the minimum required for the processing industries. The characterization of acerola fruits from different orchards showed differences in several parameters, in particular, the content of vitamin C, soluble solids and acidity. These analyses have great importance to the pharmaceutical (vitamin C) industry and to the industry of food processing (jams and juices).

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Content and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Honeys of Apis mellifera of Obudu Cattle Ranch

Chinwe S. Alisi, Okey A. Ojiako, Chidi U. Igwe, Cosmas O. Ujowundu, Ken Anugweje, Gloria N. Okwu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 164-175
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2012/1581

Honey is a naturally sweet and viscous fluid produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from the nectar of flowers. Proline, free amino acid, tannins, phenols and flavonoids content were determined in eight samples of Obudu cattle ranch honeys. Antioxidant content (ascorbic acid equivalent, quercetin equivalents, tocopherol content) and free radical scavenging activity of Obudu ranch honeys were determined by standard methods. The relationship existing between proline and antioxidant content with free radical scavenging activity was assessed by mathematical modelling using Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. Results of our study showed that Obudu ranch honey was of high quality having comparable total free amino acid, proline, phytochemical and antioxidant content with good quality honeys found elsewhere. α-Tocopherol content was 16.50 ± 1.40 µg/100 g, quercetin equivalent antioxidant content (QEAC) was 9.43 ± 0.9 mg/100 g, ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant content (AEAC) was 18.56 ± 1.78 mg/100 g, while the mean inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the honey samples against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals (RSA: IC50) was evaluated to be 12.74 ± 0.71mg/ml. Proline content, AEAC, QEAC and α-tocopherol were logistically related (r2 = 0.726, 0.971, 0.960  and 0.888 respectively) to the radical scavenging activity. The results obtained from the present study showed that Obudu ranch honeys were of high quality and possessed antioxidant and free radical scavenging property. Since proline content of the tested honey samples were comparable to proline content of unadulterated honey samples elsewhere, the commercial samples may not be adulterated Results showed that traditional usage of the honey for various medicinal usages may be related to its chemical content and radical scavenging property.