Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Hypotrigona squamuligera Raw Honey

P. Dzomba, N. Ngoroyemoto, L. Mutandwa, D. Shasha

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 98-105

Aims: To evaluate phytochemical content and biological activities of Hypotrigona squamuligera honey.
Study Design: Standard chemical tests, DPPH antiradical activity assay and agar diffusion methods.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry (Natural product section) and Biological Science Department November 2011 and March 2012.
Methodology: Standard chemical tests, DPPH antiradical activity and agar diffusion methods were adopted to determine phytochemical compounds present, antioxidant and antibacterial activity respectively. The following bacterial strains were employed in the screening studies: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, all from stock cultures of Bindura University Biological Sciences Department.
Results: Phytochemical screening revealed presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. H. squamuligera honey exhibited marked antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Its antiradical activity was lower than that of ascorbic acid and quercetin at low concentrations 0,0125 and 0,025mg/ml however as from 0,05mg/ml methanolic extract exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity. H. squamuligera honey (100%) produced a greater inhibition (24 ± 0,09 mm) than amoxicillin (19±0,01mm) for S. aureus. For E. coli amoxicillin produced greater inhibition than H. squamuligera honey. Compared to Apis mellifera honey at a concentration of 100%, H. squamuligera honey revealed better inhibitory activity. Minimum inhibitory values ranged from 10 - 25 μg/ml. The lowest MIC value (15μg/ml) for H. squamuligera honey was recorded for S. aureus.
Conclusion: The results suggest that H. squamuligera honey could potentially be used as an alternative pharmaceutical agent against certain microorganisms and source of natural antioxidants for promotion of health however there is a need to perform structural elucidation to identify the structures of phytochemical compounds present in the honey.

Open Access Original Research Article

Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism in Egyptian Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

A. F. Abdel-Aziz, Afaf Elsaid, Rehab Elmougy, Ayman Abd-Al-Samad, A. M. Elwaseef

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 106-119
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2012/1622

Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has been associated with the genetic susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD) and also with the lipid profile in different populations. One hundred and eight Egyptian patients with CAD and one hundred forty three unrelated healthy subjects were included in the study. ACE I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. We investigated the association between I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene and the presence of CAD as well as its association with hypertension in the patients. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a), Lp (a), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were estimated in the patients as well as in the healthy subjects. Increased frequency of D allele and DD genotype as well as decreased frequency of I allele and ID genotype were found in CAD patients compared to healthy subjects (P = .004, OR= 0.419, 95% CI (.2 - .8), for DD genotype), (P = .008, OR= 0.475, 95% CI (0.27-0.84), for D allele). Higher levels of both Lp (a) and IL-6 were observed in CAD patients compared to control subjects (P = .0012, P = .0346, respectively). No association was observed in ACE gene polymorphism with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. However, there is a trend for DD genotype to develop more hypertension than ID genotype (P=0.08, OR=2.88). In conclusion, theI/D polymorphism of the ACE gene (carrying the D allele) is an independent risk factor for CAD in the studied Egyptian population.