Aims: To elucidate the structure-activity relationship of snake venom phospholipase A2, the primary structures of two phospholipase A2s from V. aspis venom were analyzed, and the three-dimensional conformation models were compared. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, between August 2009 and June 2011. Methodology: The primary structures of purified phospholipase A2-II and -III were analyzed by Edman sequencing. Three-dimensional models of these enzymes and previously reported phospholipase A2-I (Vaspin) were constructed by the homology modeling method. Results: Both phospholipase A2-II and –III were found to be monomeric proteins which consist of 121 and 122 amino acid residues, respectively. Their primary structures were consistent with the deduced sequence obtained from genomic DNA analysis. The molecular models of both enzymes indicated that the substitution of important amino acid residues for anticoagulant and lethal activity might have caused the relatively weak toxicity. Conclusion: The structure-activity relationship of PLA2s was clarified by using molecular models, and clear understanding was obtained.
Total demand for ethanol due to fear of crude oil depletion and the need to mitigate global warming due to green house gas emissions is increasing year after year. The present study was undertaken to investigate optimum parameters for ethanol production from Ziziphus mauritiana by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NA33) strain. Various parameters, yeast concentration, pH and temperature were considered. A control experiment (without Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NA33) strain) was also set up for results comparison. The optimized conditions for ethanol production were established as pH 6, temperature 30ºC and yeast concentration of 8.0g per 20g fruit pulp. Under these conditions an ethanol concentration of 63 g/L was achieved. The control vessel showed not much rate of fermentation and hence it was shown that addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NA33) was necessary to increase the rate and yield.
Diet, besides its simplicity and affordability, has been clinically recommended as the first line of intervention in type 2 diabetes. However, compliance with the so-called diabetic diet has been notoriously poor, mostly because the social and cultural aspects of eating as well as the degree of difficulty involved in entrenching permanent changes in diet have greatly been underestimated. The present study therefore evaluated the suitability of some traditional Nigerian diets namely Garri with afang soup (GAS), pounded yam with edikang ikong soup (PYES) and ekpang nkukwo (EN) in alloxan diabetic rats. 15-day feeding with GAS and PYES respectively reduced (P<0.05) fasting blood glucose by 25.61% and 25.19%, compared to the reference diet, plantain with beans (37.22%). The glucose lowering effect of EN was however, not significant. Except GAS, the effect of the test diets on serum lipid profile was similar and comparable to the reference diet. Further, the impact on serum biochemical indices - β-carotene, total protein, albumin, urea and creatinine, though not dramatic, was not different from the reference diet, except serum β-carotene that was higher in the reference diet-fed animals than others (P<0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that the studied diets, can potentially offer the patients the needed dietary diversification in diabetes management.
The effect of the same concentration of heavy metals lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) pollution on oxidative stress parameters in A. hybridus leaves after fifty days was investigated. A. hybridus leaves from soil sample without heavy metal pollution served as the control. Results indicated that there were significant (p< 0.05) difference in some of the oxidative stress parameters (glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AA), protein thiol (PSH) and catalase (CAT) activity) mediated by heavy metal pollution from aqueous leaf extract of A. hybridus when compared to the control, indicating that heavy metal pollution at high concentration mediated oxidative stress in A. hybridus leaves. Heavy metals at higher concentration are toxic to plants which affect their normal metabolism and exhibit unhealthy characteristics growth.
The effect of Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum gratissimum supplemented diet on diesel petroleum induced liver damage in rats was investigated. Rats were acclimatized for two weeks and divided into three groups. Oxidative stress was induced with diesel petroleum (4 ml/kg body weight) at alternate days for seven days in group II and III rats. Group II rats were fed the supplemented diet while Group I and III fed on normal rat pellet only. After one week of feeding, the fluctuations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and concentrations of glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated stress in the liver of the rats exposed to diesel. Significant increase (P<0.05) in serum concentration of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and other liver damage markers was observed in group III rats. Serum lipid profile was also studied. Feeding with the supplemented diet showed significant reduction (P<0.05) in the activities of ALT and AST and in the concentration of MDA. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes indicated non- significant increase (P>0.05) with treatment. The concentration of other liver marker compounds and lipid profile were positively affected by the treatment. The values obtained from treated rats showed that, while diesel can induce oxidative damage to the liver, G. latifolium and O. gratissimum in the diet, indicated protective effect against oxidative and cellular degeneration in liver tissues.