Background: Ovomucoid is a serine proteinase inhibitor in the egg whites of all avian species at a concentration of about 10 mg/ml. The involvement of proteinases in a multitude of control functions in an organism has created an interest in their physiological inhibitors. Regulation of proteolytic activity in tissues is a critical requirement in the maintenance of homeostasis. Egg white proteins possess ACE-inhibitory activity, & also high radical-scavenging activity. The combined antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory properties of egg white hydrolysates, or the corresponding peptides, would make a useful multifunctional preparation for the control of cardiovascular diseases. Proteases play key roles in several physiological processes, including intracellular protein degradation, bone remodeling, and antigen presentation, and their activities are increased in pathophysiological conditions such as cancer metastasis and inflammation. They are also required for invasion by microorganism. Four protease inhibitors have been identified in egg white: cystatin, ovomucoid, ovomacroglobulin (also known as ovostatin), and ovoinhibitor. Use of proteinase inhibitors in the treatment of certain diseases has renewed interest in their specificity and stability, both of which in turn depend on the tertiary structure of the inhibitor. Structural alteration to obtain molecules of desired properties requires knowledge of relationship between structure, function and stability. Aims: In view of its importance, in the present study duck ovomucoid was isolated and characterized for its physicochemical properties. Methodology: Duck ovomucoid was isolated and characterized for its physicochemical properties. Analytical gel filtration (Sephacryl S-100 HR column) was used for purification, determination of molecular weight (MW), carbohydrate content and Stokes radius. Results & Conclusion: The fluorescence emission spectrum was 302 nm, comparable to that reported earlier. Stokes radius was found to be 2.91nm the value was comparable with white leghorn hen (stokes’ radius 3.15nm). The extraordinary large value of stokes radius can be attributed to its high carbohydrate content which increases the hydration of the molecule. The inhibitor had the molecular weight of 29,300 and the carbohydrate content was 22%, the specific extinction coefficient of duck ovomucoid was found to be 5.82 at 279 nm and the stokes radius was 2.91nm.
Carbon tetrachloride and its toxic metabolites consistently produce liver injury in many species including man. The hepatoprotective potential of Chromolaena odorata Linn. (C. odorata) was evaluated in male rabbits against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Carbon tetrachloride intoxicated control (CCl4) and ethanol extract of C. odorata-treated rabbits (ETECO TEST) received a single dose of CCl4 (0.2 ml/kg bw in liquid paraffin 1:1). Pre-treated rabbits received ethanol extract of C. odorata at 400 mg/kg/day in two divided doses of 200 mg/kg in morning and at night for 6 days prior to CCl4 administration. Sylimarin control received 50 mg/kg bw as a replacement for ETECO prior to CCl4 intoxication. Normal animals received only extract in the above stated dose and served as extract controls (ETECO CTRL). Pre-treatment with C. odorata significantly (p<0.05) prevented the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanineaminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transferase (×¥-GT), total bilirubin and malondialdehyde (MDA) resulting from carbon tetrachloride intoxication. C. odorata extract also significantly (p<0.05) prevented a decrease in serum total protein, albumin, and glutathione (GSH) concentrations. The extract also significantly (p<0.05) prevented a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities. The presence of secondary plant metabolites like alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compouds, flavonoids and tannins found in C. odorata extract could be responsible for its hepatoprotective action.
The modern science mainly treats the biochemical basis of sequencing in bio-macromolecules and processes in medicine and biochemistry. One can ask weather the language of biochemistry is the adequate scientific language to explain the phenomenon in that science. Is there maybe some other language, out of biochemistry, that determines how the biochemical processes will function and what the structure and organization of life systems will be? The research results provide some answers to these questions. They reveal to us that the process of sequencing in bio-macromolecules is conditioned and determined not only through biochemical, but also through cybernetic and information principles. Many studies have indicated that analysis of protein sequence codes and various sequence-based prediction approaches, such as predicting drug-target interaction networks (He et al., 2010), predicting functions of proteins (Hu et al., 2011; Kannan et al., 2008), analysis and prediction of the metabolic stability of proteins (Huang et al., 2010), predicting the network of substrate-enzyme-product triads (Chen et al., 2010), membrane protein type prediction (Cai and Chou, 2006; Cai et al., 2003; Cai et al., 2004), protein structural class prediction (Cai et al., 2006; Ding et al., 2007), protein secondary structure prediction (Chen et al., 2009; Ding et al., 2009b), enzyme family class prediction (Cai et al., 2005; Ding et al., 2009a; Wang et al., 2010), identifying cyclin proteins (Mohabatkar, 2010), protein subcellular location prediction (Chou and Shen, 2010a; Chou and Shen, 2010b; Kandaswamy et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2010), among many others as summarized in a recent review (Chou, 2011), can timely provide very useful information and insights for both basic research and drug design and hence are widely welcome by science community. The present study is attempted to develop a novel sequence-based method for studying insulin in hopes that it may become a useful tool in the relevant areas.
Downy mildew (DM) of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] caused by Sclerospora graminicola is the most widespread and destructive disease. In DM affected plants disease symptoms appear suddenly with the emergence of green ear, which exhibits all possible degrees of proliferations and malformation of the panicle. The pathogen population at Jodhpur, India is more virulent among other prevalent pathotypes as highly resistant pearl millet lines turned susceptible at this location. Virulence of pathotype rapidly changes host physiology producing varied symptoms in leaves and ear heads. Biochemical components including carbohydrates, phenols, free proline, photosynthetic pigments and enzymes like polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), IAA oxidase (IAAO) and catalase were found considerably deranged in malformed tissues. Results indicated that in two highly susceptible cultivars (Nokha local and Eknath) high soluble sugars were recorded in DM necrotic/chlorotic leaves and malformed ear heads, whereas starch contents were reduced in infected ear heads. Total and O-dihydroxy phenols were higher in DM infected leaves as well as in the malformed ear heads. Free proline contents were increased manifold in DM infected leaves and in proliferated panicles. Total chlorophyll contents reduced drastically in DM infected leaves. In ear heads showing tufting and complete malformation, total chlorophyll and carotenoids were low when compared to healthy and diseased leaves. Activities of PPO, POX, IAAO and catalase were higher in DM affected leaves and suppressed and completely malformed ear heads in comparison to their healthy counterparts. The study suggests that accumulation of total phenols caused the hyperphenolicity in infected host tissues despite increased activities of POX, PPO, catalase and IAA oxidase.