Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] downy mildew (DM) is caused by the fungus Sclerospora graminicola (SACC.) SCHRÅT. is the most widespread and destructive disease of pearl millet affecting yield and quality in all the millet cultivating tracts of India. Since pearl millet is a crop of low economic value grown by resource-poor farmers, conventional technological interventions are not cost feasible. Integration of indigenous knowledge with biocontrol agents appeared as a logical strategy in the present case. Studies were, therefore, undertaken to manage DM in rainfed crop of pearl millet using raw cow milk together with Gliocladium virens. Seed and soil treatments resulted in the lowest disease incidence. Biochemical constituents (metabolites and oxidative enzymes) were analysed to determine possible mode of action of Raw Cow Milk (RCM) and Gliocladium virens. A considerable increase in sugars, phenols and ortho-dihydroxy phenols (OD) in healthy and DM infected leaves of treated pearl millet plants was recorded when compared to untreated controls. A marked increase in all the photosynthetic pigments in both healthy and diseased treated plants was observed. The induction of resistance was accompanied by increased activities of defense related enzymes. It is assumed that the combination of RCM and G. virens is capable of stimulating different systemic responses in host plant.
This research attempts to examine the effects of ascorbic and folic acid intervention on the haematology, antioxidants molecules and enzymes of mice exposed to malaria infection. The study involves three groups of control (non-parasitized-nontreated), parasitized-non-treated (PnT) and parasitized ascorbic and folic acid treated (P+as+faT). Intervention with ascorbic and folic acids commenced for three days after parasitemia had been established in mice. Results from this study showed that ascorbic and folic acid intervention in malaria condition reduced (P<0.05) total protein, erythrocyte fragility (EF), increased (P<0.05) packed cell volume (PCV) in comparison with PnT and control mice groups. Lipid peroxidation product in serum, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Catalase (CAT) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) reduced in parasitized mice administered with ascorbic and folic acid doses, as against those of control, whereas SOD activity in Control and CAT activity in PnT observed to increase and decrease, respectively. The extent of lipid peroxidation in kidney was effectively reduced by ascorbic and folic acid compared to PnT. In liver SOD activity, CAT activity, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity significantly (P<0.05) reduced in P+as+faT as against PnT and control groups. From these observations therefore, we draw the conclusion that ascorbic and folic acids combination in malaria infection may reduce lipid peroxidation and stimulate cellular pathways that enhance the production of high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of the methanol extract of the leaf of Napoleona imperialis (p. beauv) in adrenaline induced hypertensive rats (AlHR) and compared with those of Propanolol in a cross over design. Napoleona imperialis leaf extract and the commercial drug (Propanolol) were administered orally and through intraperitoneal (I.P) route respectively for one week. Effect of the extract on different biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, serum creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, pulse rate and body weight were measured utilizing standard methods. Napoleona imperialis leaf extract at the doses of 26mg/130±17g and 52mg/130±17g of body weight were given orally every morning during treatment to show the effect of dose concentration. Propanolol at a dose of 0.084mg/130±17g of body weight was injected into rats according to its pharmacokinetic parameters. The extract administered rats had significantly lowered serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase and pulse rate compared to the non-extract administered AlHR group (P<0.05). Blood glucose, serum triglycerides and serum cholesterol were not lowered and significantly different (P<0.05) when compared with the control. These results suggest that oral administration of methanol extract of Napoleona imperialis may be useful for prevention and treatment of hypertension.